Properties Of Metals And Nonmetals Pdf

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properties of metals and nonmetals pdf

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An element is the simplest form of matter that cannot be split into simpler substances or built from simpler substances by any ordinary chemical or physical method.

Elements may be classified as either metals or nonmetals based on their properties. Much of the time, you can tell an element is a metal simply by looking at its metallic luster, but this isn't the only distinction between these two general groups of elements. Most elements are metals.

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Properties of metals and non-metals

In this chapter learners are introduced to the Periodic Table of elements for the first time. They will learn about the main features of the Periodic Table and where the three categories of elements - metals, non-metals and semi-metals also called the metalloids - can be found. They will also learn that elements are arranged on the table according to their atomic numbers, starting with hydrogen atomic number 1 at the top left hand corner and continuing from left to right across the table.

We will deal with atomic number from the point of view that it shows the position of a given element on the Periodic Table. In reality the atomic number determines rather than shows the position of a given element on the table.

A video to introduce us to elements and to the Periodic Table. The video in the above link is an entertaining and simple way to introduce learners to the subject matter of this chapter about elements and the Periodic Table. It briefly explains what an element is, introduces Dmitri Mendeleev and his arrangement of the Periodic Table and also explains some of the concepts discussed later on in the chapter.

People have been interested in science from the earliest times. Early man discovered how to process natural ores into metals for ornaments, weapons and tools. At least years ago, ancient people were already using embalming fluids chemicals obtained from plants to preserve the bodies of dead people and animals!

Mankind has been studying and experimenting with materials to try to understand matter for thousands of years. Scientists especially, wanted some understanding of all the different substances that they were working with. Over time, many different elements were discovered by scientists all over the world. These elements make up all the materials around us.

But what do we mean by the word element? An element is a pure substance which cannot be broken down any further. We will find out more about elements in this chapter. Over time, our knowledge about the elements and their behaviour increased and scientists recognised the need to organise this information. They began to observe patterns and similarities in the way some groups of elements behaved and recorded these observations.

Scientists wanted some way to classify the elements according to their properties that they were observing. The version of the Periodic Table that we use today was first proposed by Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev in Mendeleev was a brilliant Russian scientist.

While other scientists made many contributions to the design of the Periodic Table, Mendeleev was the one who first showed that the table could predict the existence and properties of elements that were still undiscovered at the time.

An interesting video that tells us about how scientists solved the puzzle of the Periodic Table. This video tells us more about how Dmitri Mendeleev listed and arranged the elements on the Periodic Table and why this was such an important event in the history of science as we know it.

Mendeleev's original table is not part of what learners are required know, but has been included to give learners a sense of the pace of scientific discovery. In order to make learners aware that scientific discovery can sometimes be a slow process, you could point out the gaps that are evident on Mendeleev's Periodic Table e. These gaps represented elements that were not known at the time, but have been discovered since.

This website contains an interactive version of the Periodic Table. It is a wonderful tool to show some of the trends and information that the Periodic Table contains. This website can also be used in the later grades when the Periodic Table is covered again, in more detail.

A tour of the Periodic Table. The video above includes a bit more history about Dmitri Mendeleev, reviews Mendeleev's organisation of the period table and then moves on to relationships of elements on the Periodic Table. Just before the end of the video, the host mentions the importance of electrons to be discussed in another video. Atoms, electrons and protons are concepts that are only discussed in Gr. In Life and Living, we looked at the classification of living organisms in our world.

Now in Matter and Materials, we are looking at the classification system for elements! The Periodic Table is a classification system for the elements that make up the matter and materials in our world. Today, there are more than different elements known! Each element has its own name, symbol, atomic number and position on the Periodic Table.

Hafnium takes its name from the Latin name for Copenhagen, which is Hafnia , as the element was discovered by two scientists working in Copenhagen at the time. What is your name? Perhaps it is Thando.

Or David. Or Megan. Perhaps you are lucky enough to be the only person in your class with that name. Perhaps you are lucky enough to be the only person in the world with that name! That would make your name unique. Each element has a unique name. We can think of each name as a unique 'label' we can use to identify the element. There are two other unique labels that we can use to identify elements.

They are the chemical symbol and the atomic number. We will learn more about these in the next section. Each element has some of its own unique properties and later on we will see that those with some similar properties can be grouped together. Which one is your favourite? Can you learn one or both of them? There is a bigger version of the modern Periodic Table of elements on the inside cover of your workbook. You can use it for easy reference. If you are a scientist and you work with elements every day, writing out the names can become very tedious.

To make writing about elements easier, scientists have given each element a short symbol. To make sure we do not become confused with different elements when we write about them, the symbol for each element must be unique, just like its name is. The symbol for carbon is C, the symbol for sulfur is S and the symbol for nitrogen is N. It is easy to see why these symbols were chosen: they simply represent the first letter of each name.

This letter is always capitalised upper case. What happens when the different elements all start with the same letter? For example: calcium, carbon, chlorine and copper all start with the letter 'C'! To ensure they all have a unique symbol, a second letter was added to their symbol. This letter is always a small letter lower case.

Some chemical symbols are more difficult to understand. Na, for example, is the symbol for sodium. The Na comes from the Latin name for sodium, which is natrium. These symbols were chosen very long ago, when many subjects were studied in Latin. Can you imagine how difficult that must have been?! The symbol for lead Pb comes from plumbum, the Latin word for lead.

For many years, lead was used to make water pipes. This is also where the word plumber comes from. This site contains an interactive explanation of the history of the Periodic Table and the atom and explains how the concepts are related. Important note: We have briefly introduced the atom here, although it was not specified in CAPS , so that the idea of the atomic number makes sense and is not just an abstract number. However, these concepts will be explored further in Gr. For now it is important the learners understand that each element has a unique atomic number and that the Periodic Table of elements is a way of classifying the elements so that they are grouped together in terms of similar properties.

When introducing the subatomic particles , you can draw the model of the atom on the board if you would like to show this to your learners. However, it is not crucial that learners understand the arrangement of the subatomic particles at this stage. Here is a simple model of the atom which you can illustrate on the board:. This model here illustrates nitrogen atoms as there are 7 protons. Take note that there are equal numbers of protons and neutrons. Together they make up the nucleus of the atom.

Protons have a positive charge, electrons have a negative charge, and neutrons are neutral. If the number of electrons equals the number of protons, then the atom is neutral and does not have a charge.

The atom can gain or lose electrons resulting in a charge, and it is then called an ion. If you look at the Periodic Table, you will see that each element also has a unique number. This is called the atomic number. To properly understand what the atomic number is, we need to know what an atom is. We will learn more about atoms in Gr.

Do you remember we said Mendeleev developed the first periodic table in ? Well before that, at the beginning of the 's, a man by the name of John Dalton said that all matter is made up of very small particles called atoms. These atoms vary in mass and size. Do you remember we said an element is a pure substance? We can now also say that an element is a substance that contains only one particular type of atom.

Metals and NonMetals Class 10 Notes Science Chemistry

Metals: Those materials which possess the characteristic of being hard, shiny, malleable, fusible, ductile, etc. Few examples of metals are iron, gold, silver, aluminium, copper, etc. Physical Properties of Metals: a Malleability: It is that property of metals which allows them to be beaten into the thin sheets. Due to presence of this property, the shape of iron nail and aluminium wire can be changed on beating. The silver foils used for decorating sweets and the aluminium foil used for wrapping food are possible because of malleability property of metals.

Metals and Non-metals Class 10 Notes Science Chapter 3

Metals: Physical properties of metals, chemical properties of metals and non-metal oxide. Metals are the elements that conduct heat and electricity and are malleable and ductile. Metals are the elements which form positive ions by losing electrons.

The shine on the metallic surface is called the metallic lustre. For example, silver metal is beaten to make silver foil used for decorating sweets. For example, copper and iron can be drawn into wires.

In this chapter learners are introduced to the Periodic Table of elements for the first time.

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Metals are placed on the left-hand side of the periodic table , and non-metals on the right. The table summarises some typical properties of metals and non-metals. Some elements have properties that are not typical. For example:. A substance with a high density means it has a high mass for its size. Malleable substances can be bent or hammered into shape without shattering, while brittle substances shatter when bent or hit.

Before we explain, you should know that most of the elements in the periodic table are metals. Metals are found in the center and left side of the periodic table. They can be further classified as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, and basic metals. An element is a substance made up of one kind of atom ; it cannot be separated into simpler parts. For example, the element helium think hot-air balloons is made up exclusively of helium atoms. High melting point : Most metals have high melting points and all except mercury are solid at room temperature. Reactivity : Some metals will undergo a chemical change reaction , by themselves or with other elements, and release energy.

Facebook Instagram Twitter. The rows of the table are called periods and columns are called groups. Applications of Non - Metals: i The oxygen necessary for all living beings to survive is a non-metal.

When we polish metals, they are also good reflectors of light. Standardization in the field of corrosion of metals and alloys including corrosion test methods, corrosion prevention methods and corrosion control engineering life cycle. Commercial metal alloys attempt to combine these beneficial properties in order to create metals more useful for particular applications than any of their component elements.

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