Chemical Warfare Agents Toxicology And Treatment Pdf File
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- Chemical warfare agents
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- Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents
- A Review of Chemical Warfare Agents and Treatment Options
CWAs include five primary categories: nerve agents, asphyxiants, blistering agents, toxic industrial chemicals and blood agents. The French military used tear gas and acetone-based compounds for crowd control; chlorine gas was placed in capsules and released at the Battle of Ypres in , and was used as an alternative weapon after the German military exhausted materials for explosive weapons and began to investigate and use CWAs.
Chemical warfare agents CWAs are unarguably one of the most feared toxic substances produced by mankind. Their inception in conventional warfare can be traced as far back as the Middle Ages but their full breakthrough as central players in bellic conflicts was not realized until World War I. Since then, more modern CWAs along with efficient methods for their manufacture have emerged and violently shaped the way modern warfare and diplomatic relations are conducted. Owing to their mass destruction ability, counter methods to mitigate their impact appeared almost immediately on par with their development.
Chemical warfare agents
They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase AChE resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine ACh at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system CNS depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest.
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Zotero Mendeley EndNote. However, use of toxic agents in wars and in attack started in the first ages of written history. The threat of chemical weapons reached to important extents in the last part of the 20th century and became a current issue in the mass destructions and terrorist events. Therefore, nowadays and generally in the 21st century, it should be accepted that the chemical weapons take their part along with the conventional weapons and they have become most possible warfare and attack methods. Knowledge is provided by education.
Mustard agents are highly toxic and abundant warfare chemicals, primarily affecting ocular tissues, with no specific treatment antidote. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of novel metallocomplexes, known to inhibit the formation of highly reactive free radicals, to reduce ocular injury induced by nitrogen mustard NM. Examiners masked to the treatment groups assessed the extent of ocular injury and the response to treatment using clinical, histologic, and biochemical criteria. Exposure to NM followed by administration of carrier alone saline caused severe and long-lasting injury to ocular anterior segment structures. These were also associated with better preservation of systemic antioxidant status. Zinc or DFO alone afforded lower levels of protection.
Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents
Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.
Note to reader: This fact sheet is intended to provide general awareness and education on specific chemical agents.
A Review of Chemical Warfare Agents and Treatment Options
VX is an extremely toxic synthetic chemical compound in the organophosphorus class, specifically, a thiophosphonate. In the class of nerve agents , it was developed for military use in chemical warfare after translation of earlier discoveries of organophosphate toxicity in pesticide research. In recent years, VX was found to be the agent used in the assassination of Kim Jong-nam. In its pure form, VX is an oily, relatively non-volatile , liquid that is amber-like in color. VX, short for "venomous agent X",  is one of the best known of the V nerve agents and was first discovered at Porton Down in England during the early s based on research first done by Gerhard Schrader , a chemist working for IG Farben in Germany during the s. Now one of a broader V-series of agents, they are classified as nerve agents and have been used as a chemical weapon in various recorded deadly attacks.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Rules and Regulations Pertaining to Chemical Weapons; Listing of sarin and mustard chemical warfare agents; waste chemical weapons; and soil, water, debris, residues and containers contaminated through contact with waste chemical weapons. Denver, Colo. Conner, J. Chemical Fixation and Solidification of Hazardous Wastes. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
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