Structure And Function Of Skeleton Pdf
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The human skeletal system consists of all of the bones, cartilage , tendons, and ligaments in the body. There are also some differences in the male and female skeleton.
The human skeletal system is not quite as simple as the popular children's song suggests.
Bone, the material that makes vertebrates distinct from other animals, has evolved over several hundred million years to become a remarkable tissue. Bone is a material that has the same strength as cast iron, but achieves this while remaining as light as wood. The front leg of a horse can withstand the loads generated while this pound animal travels at 30 miles per hour. The upper arm is able to keep birds aloft through entire migrations, sometimes over 10, miles without landing.
Bone Structure and Function
The human skeletal system consists of all of the bones, cartilage , tendons, and ligaments in the body. There are also some differences in the male and female skeleton. The male skeleton is usually longer and has a high bone mass. The female skeleton, on the other hand, has a broader pelvis to accommodate for pregnancy and child birth. Regardless of age or sex, the skeletal system can be broken down into two parts, known as the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The adult axial skeleton consists of 80 bones.
The auditory ossicles are six small bones found within the inner ear canal in the skull. There are three auditory ossicles on each side of the head, known as the:. They work together to transmit sound waves from the surrounding environment to the structures of the inner ear.
The hyoid is a U-shaped bone found at the base of the jaw. It serves as a point of attachment for muscles and ligaments in the neck. The vertebral column is made up 26 bones. The first 24 are all vertebrae, followed by the sacrum and coccyx tailbone. The sacrum and coccyx are both made up of several fused vertebrae.
They help support the weight of the body while sitting. They also serve as attachment points for various ligaments. The thoracic cage is made up of the sternum breastbone and 12 pairs of ribs. These bones form a protective cage around the organs of the upper torso, including the heart and lungs. Some of the ribs attach directly to the sternum, while others are linked to the sternum via cartilage. There are a total of bones in the appendicular skeleton. It consists of the bones that make up the arms and legs, as well as the bones that attach them to the axial skeleton.
The pectoral girdle is where the arms attach to the axial skeleton. There are two of each of these — one for each arm.
The pelvic girdle, commonly known as the hips, is where the legs attach to the axial skeleton. For example, the spinal column provides support for the head and torso. The legs, on the other hand, support and bear the weight of the upper body while a person stands. A fracture can also be referred to as a broken bone. Fractures typically occur due to an injury or trauma, such as a car accident or a fall. Metabolic bone diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect bone strength or integrity.
They can be due to things such as a deficiency in vitamin D , loss of bone mass, and use of certain medications, such as steroids or chemotherapy. Arthritis is an inflammation of the joints. This can cause pain and a limited range of movement. Cancer can develop in the tissues of the bone or in the cells produced by bones. Cancer that forms in the primary bone tissue is actually quite rare. Cancers of the blood cells produced by bone, such as myeloma or lymphoma , are more common.
Typically, the spine follows gentle forward and backward curves. The adductor hallucis is a two-headed muscle that is responsible for flexing and contracting the big toe, and reinforcing the arch of the foot. The ankle bones include the calcaneus, cuboid, external cuneiform, internal cuneiform, middle cuneiform, navicular, and talus.
The talus sits at the…. The vastus lateralis muscle is located on the side of the thigh. This muscle is the largest of the quadriceps group often called quads which also…. The adductor pollicis is a large triangular muscle located in the hand. Together with other muscles, it is part of the fleshy mass in the first web…. The zygomaticus major muscle is a muscle that controls facial expression, drawing the mouth's angle upward and outward.
The zygomaticus major muscle…. The semitendinosus muscle is one of three hamstring muscles that are located at the back of the thigh. The other two are the semimembranosus muscle…. The main adductors of the hip are the adductor magnus muscle, the adductor longus muscle, and the adductor brevis muscle.
These adductors are assisted…. A thin strip of tissue, the multifidus muscle starts at the sacral bone at the base of the spine and extends up to the axis, which is commonly…. The opponens digiti minimi is a triangular muscle in the hand.
It plays an integral role in the movement and control of the fifth metacarpal, or the…. The extensor…. Skeletal System Overview.
Medically reviewed by William Morrison, M. Axial skeleton anatomy. Skull bones The adult skull comprises 22 bones. These bones can be further classified by location: Cranial bones. The eight cranial bones form the bulk of your skull. They help to protect your brain. Facial bones.
There are 14 facial bones. Auditory ossicles The auditory ossicles are six small bones found within the inner ear canal in the skull. There are three auditory ossicles on each side of the head, known as the: malleus hammer incus anvil stapes stirrup They work together to transmit sound waves from the surrounding environment to the structures of the inner ear. Hyoid The hyoid is a U-shaped bone found at the base of the jaw.
Vertebral column The vertebral column is made up 26 bones. The 24 vertebrae can be further divided into the: Cervical vertebrae. These seven bones are found in the head and neck. Thoracic vertebrae. These 12 bones are found in the upper back. Lumbar vertebrae. These five bones are found in the lower back. Thoracic cage The thoracic cage is made up of the sternum breastbone and 12 pairs of ribs. Skeletal system diagram.
Explore the interactive 3-D diagram below to learn more about the skeletal system. Appendicular skeleton anatomy. Pectoral girdle The pectoral girdle is where the arms attach to the axial skeleton.
Upper limbs Each arm contains 30 bones, known as the: Humerus. The humerus is the long bone of the upper arm. The radius is one of two long bones of the forearm, found on the thumb side.
The ulna is the second long bone of the forearm, found on the pinky finger side. The carpals are a group of eight bones found in the wrist area. The metacarpals are five bones found in the middle area of the hand. The phalanges are 14 bones that make up the fingers. Pelvic girdle The pelvic girdle, commonly known as the hips, is where the legs attach to the axial skeleton.
Each hip bone consists of three parts, known as the: Ilium. The ilium is the top portion of each hip bone. The ischium is a curved bone that makes up the base of each hip bone. The pubis is located in the front part of the hip bone.
Lower limbs Each leg is composed of 30 bones, known as the: Femur. The femur is the large bone of the upper leg. The tibia is the main bone of the lower leg. It forms the shin. The fibula is the second bone in the lower leg, found in the outer leg. The patella is also called the kneecap. The tarsals are the seven bones that make up the ankle. The metatarsals are the five bones that make up the middle area of the foot.
The phalanges are 14 bones that comprise the toes. What is the function of the skeletal system?
Bones are an important part of the musculoskeletal system. This article, the first in a two-part series on the skeletal system, reviews the anatomy and physiology of bone. The skeletal system is formed of bones and cartilage, which are connected by ligaments to form a framework for the remainder of the body tissues. This article, the first in a two-part series on the structure and function of the skeletal system, reviews the anatomy and physiology of bone. Understanding the structure and purpose of the bone allows nurses to understand common pathophysiology and consider the most-appropriate steps to improve musculoskeletal health.
Human skeleton , the internal skeleton that serves as a framework for the body. This framework consists of many individual bones and cartilages. There also are bands of fibrous connective tissue —the ligaments and the tendons —in intimate relationship with the parts of the skeleton. This article is concerned primarily with the gross structure and the function of the skeleton of the normal human adult. The human skeleton, like that of other vertebrates , consists of two principal subdivisions, each with origins distinct from the others and each presenting certain individual features. These are 1 the axial , comprising the vertebral column —the spine—and much of the skull , and 2 the appendicular , to which the pelvic hip and pectoral shoulder girdles and the bones and cartilages of the limbs belong. Discussed in this article as part of the axial skeleton is a third subdivision, the visceral, comprising the lower jaw , some elements of the upper jaw, and the branchial arches, including the hyoid bone.
Skeletal System Overview
Human skeleton , the internal skeleton that serves as a framework for the body. This framework consists of many individual bones and cartilages. There also are bands of fibrous connective tissue —the ligaments and the tendons —in intimate relationship with the parts of the skeleton. This article is concerned primarily with the gross structure and the function of the skeleton of the normal human adult.
Bones are more than just the scaffolding that holds the body together. Bones come in all shapes and sizes and have many roles. In this article, we explain their function, what they are made of, and the types of cells involved. Bones have many functions.
A skeletal system is necessary to support the body, protect internal organs, and allow for the movement of an organism. There are three different skeleton designs that fulfill these functions: hydrostatic skeleton, exoskeleton, and endoskeleton. A hydrostatic skeleton is a skeleton formed by a fluid-filled compartment within the body, called the coelom. The organs of the coelom are supported by the aqueous fluid, which also resists external compression.
Он отдал распоряжение вырубить электропитание, но это все равно произойдет на двадцать минут позже, чем следует. Акулы со скоростными модемами успеют скачать чудовищные объемы секретной информации через открывшееся окно.
Глава Отделения криптографии АНБ была не просто женщиной, а очень привлекательной женщиной. - Да нет, - замялся. - Я просто… - Сьюзан Флетчер. - Женщина улыбнулась и протянула ему тонкую изящную руку. - Дэвид Беккер. - Он пожал ее руку. - Примите мои поздравления, мистер Беккер.
Он совсем забыл про кольцо на пальце, забыл, для чего приехал в Севилью. Он посмотрел на приближающуюся фигуру, затем перевел взгляд на кольцо. Из-за чего погибла Меган. Неужели ему предстояло погибнуть по той же причине. Человек неумолимо приближался по крутой дорожке. Вокруг Беккера не было ничего, кроме стен. По сторонам, правда, находились железные ворота, но звать на помощь уже поздно.
Однако в данный момент у него был перерыв и он поглощал пирог с сыром и перцем в круглосуточной столовой АНБ. Джабба собирался взять третий кусок, когда зазвонил мобильный телефон. - Говорите, - сказал он, быстро проглотив пирог. - Джабба, - проворковала женщина в ответ. - Это Мидж. - Королева информации! - приветствовал ее толстяк.
В Севилье есть панки и рокеры. Росио улыбнулась: - Todo bajo el sol. Чего только нет под солнцем. - Это был девиз туристского бюро Севильи. - Она назвала вам свое имя.
Должно ведь быть какое-то объяснение. - Оно есть, - кивнул Стратмор. - Тебя оно не обрадует. - В ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ сбой.
Как всегда, валяет дурака, - сказала Сьюзан. Стратмор не скрывал недовольства.
Сказал, что он взламывает коды каждые шесть минут и делал это даже пока мы с ним говорили. Поблагодарил меня за то, что я решил позвонить. - Он лжет, - фыркнула Мидж. - Я два года проверяю отчеты шифровалки.
В результате его легкомыслия АНБ оказалось на пороге крупнейшего в истории краха, краха в сфере национальной безопасности Соединенных Штатов. - Коммандер, вы ни в чем не виноваты! - воскликнула. - Если бы Танкадо был жив, мы могли бы заключить с ним сделку, и у нас был бы выбор. Но Стратмор ее не слышал.