Renewable Energy And Energy Efficiency Assessment Of Projects And Policies Pdf

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World oil markets have rebounded from the massive demand shock triggered by Covid but still face a high degree of uncertainty that is testing the industry as never before, according to a new IEA report. Global gathering on 31 March will strengthen international efforts to accelerate clean energy transitions worldwide in the run-up to COP26 in November and beyond. Understanding the impacts of Covid on global CO2 emissions.

Shaping a secure and sustainable energy future for all.

Metrics details. Cities around the world face a great challenge in establishing a long-term strategy for the development of energy alternatives. Previous research tried to identify renewable energy across many different cities. Because each city has unique characteristics in terms of geographic and environmental conditions, population, economic development, and social and political environment, the most sustainable energy source for one city might be the least sustainable for another.

This research develops and implements a systematic approach to assess renewable energy and identify the energy alternatives for a city using the analytic hierarchy process. Results show that improving energy efficiency and development of solar and wind energy are the most preferred energy alternatives whereas nuclear and hydroelectric are the least preferred energy alternatives for these three cities.

The results of this study are in line with decades of research and development in energy alternatives and show a clear direction for the future development of energy alternatives around the world. There are differences in the rankings of energy alternatives for different cities, indicating that it is necessary to apply the decision support system developed in this study to help form customized energy strategies for cities with unique characteristics.

As energy demand increases over time in many places, countries around the world and local governments diversify investment in a variety of energy sources to meet the demand [ 1 ]. Fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas are reliable energy sources, but are not sustainable and cause significant and irreversible damage to the environment in the long term in addition to their immediate damage such as fine dust emissions due to burning oil and mercury emissions caused by coal combustion.

Renewable energy alternatives such as solar and wind are widely available and may be explored to meet part of the demand. In addition, improving the energy efficiency of existing applications is a cost-effective way to help meet the demand without significant increase in energy production [ 2 ].

Development of energy alternatives to fossil fuels faces a number of challenges [ 3 ]. First, several alternatives such as nuclear, biomass, solar, wind, and hydroelectric are available.

A municipality has limited resources and cannot invest in all alternatives simultaneously and equally [ 1 ]. It is difficult to predict which energy alternatives will be most beneficial in the long term and determine which alternatives should be invested and the amount of investment.

Secondly, the development of energy alternatives depends on many factors such as geographic conditions, population, societal needs, and politics. An energy alternative that is well suited for one city may be the worst choice for another city. Thirdly, there are many criteria such as cost and security that dictate the selection of energy alternatives. Which criteria should be included in the decision process for comparing energy alternatives and how to weigh different criteria need to be analyzed.

This study applies the analytic hierarchy process AHP and develops a systematic approach and a decision support system to assess energy alternatives and help municipalities select the most suitable alternatives. The methodology is implemented to analyze energy alternatives for three cities representing Asia, Europe, and North America. Results show that the energy alternatives chosen by the decision support system are reasonable and well justified.

The AHP may be used to assess energy alternatives for other cities by computing total scores and rankings of alternatives using expert input. The methodology developed in this study may be adapted to general multi-criteria decision-making problems involving expert input.

Renewable energy has become an inseparable part of sustainable economic development, and numerous studies were conducted to determine the investment strategies in renewable energy.

Lee and Zhong [ 3 ] presented a study on developing a holistic strategy for renewable energy investment, which includes three steps of analyzing a economics and renewable energy policies, b renewable energy fields that exhibit more attractive investment opportunities, and c most promising renewable energy technologies for prospective investors.

Aguilar and Cai [ 4 ] investigated the likelihood of opportunities for renewable energy private investments in the USA. The analysis showed that solar and wind energy was ranked at the top while grass and wood-based energy alternatives were at the bottom of the alternatives list.

Outside of the USA, Zhang et al. The model investigated uncertain factors, including non-renewable energy cost, the market price of electricity, and CO 2 costs, and evaluated the investment value and optimum timing for solar farm applications in China. It was found that increased level of subsidy, stabilized market, and promoting technological developments were major factors in leveraging investment. Simsek and Simsek [ 6 ] investigated the incentives for renewable energy in Turkey.

It was stated that the deregulation of the electricity market and improved renewable energy legislations had encouraged growth in renewable energy investment and projects within the past few years. Mattiussi et al. Romero et al. The research suggested that the recent success in the increase in renewable energy investment and installations was due to the public financial incentives.

Spain was selected as a case study. Renewable options including wind, solar-thermal, photovoltaic, and biomass were studied. Financial support systems in Spain were also identified in the study. This study focused on macroeconomics and job creation potential of renewable energy technologies in the Netherlands.

It was predicted that 0. It was also estimated that 50, new full-time jobs would become available by then. The research was conducted previously to compare and select renewable energy.

Many municipalities, especially medium to large-size cities, however, face the challenge of how to identify the most suitable energy sources that are sustainable and cost-effective. There is a gap between the state-of-the-art research in renewable energy and how to customize the research outcome for the development and implementation of renewable energy in cities around the world.

Complex decisions about renewable energy often involve intangible and implicit information, which may be quantified using tangible and explicit values to help make informed decisions [ 12 ].

The AHP is a measurement technique that performs pairwise comparisons of decision criteria and rank decision alternatives using expert knowledge. The AHP enables experts to adjust their assessment through a reaffirmation process and fine-tune their assessment for unbiased decision-making. Since the AHP was first developed in s, it has been applied to many applications for decision-making [ 14 ].

Several studies focused on using the AHP for the planning of renewable and sustainable energy e. In the context of renewable energy, various studies targeted specific energy sources. For example, Sindhu et al. Uyan [ 26 ] used the AHP to select solar farm sites in Turkey. Papalexandrou et al. Okello et al. Choudhary and Shankar [ 29 ] discussed how the AHP could be used to select thermal power plant locations in India. In addition to planning of renewable energy and selection of specific renewable energy sources, the AHP was widely used in energy applications and beyond.

For example, several studies focused on green supply chains and used the AHP to help select suppliers [ 30 ], seaports [ 31 ], and green electricity [ 32 ]. Other studies used the AHP to select wind observation station locations [ 33 ], allocate energy research and development resources [ 34 ], and compare water heating systems [ 35 ]. While there has been substantial research on renewable energy planning and energy source selection using the AHP, few studies combined these two directions and applied them to various geographical regions to determine the long-term energy strategies in these regions.

Municipalities have unique characteristics, including natural resources, environmental conditions, population, industry activities, politics, and others, and experience different short-term and long-term trends of how these characteristics might evolve.

The planning of energy production involves several actors e. A systematic approach is needed to enable a municipality to design a strategy for effectively and efficiently exploring energy alternatives.

The novelty of this article is twofold. First, this study integrates energy planning and energy source selection. Previous research focused on either the planning of a specific energy source such as wind or solar, or the selection of energy sources. This article integrates both and develops a systematic approach for long-term energy planning and selection of sustainable energy sources. Secondly, this study applies the AHP to help energy planning and selection of renewable energy for specific cities based on their unique characteristics.

Previous research developed general methodologies for energy planning or selection of energy sources; these methodologies were not customized for municipalities and recommendations were often disconnected from realities. The main contribution of this study is a systematic approach embedded in a decision support system that uses the AHP to rank different energy alternatives according to multiple criteria and determines the appropriate energy alternatives for a particular city.

Decision-makers and stakeholders may use the outcome of the decision support system developed in this study to make informed decisions about the investment and implementation of energy alternatives for a city. Two sets of data, including weights for the assessment criteria and performance scores of energy alternatives for criteria, are collected, normalized, and analyzed in this study.

Weights for criteria are determined through a survey of experts across multiple disciplines and performance scores are obtained through in-depth face-to-face interviews with energy domain experts who have intimate knowledge about cities of interest [ 12 , 13 ].

Previous research investigated several aspects in the assessment of renewable energy, including environmental concerns [ 18 ], incentives [ 6 ], investment strategies [ 3 , 4 , 5 ], jobs and economic development [ 11 ], and research development [ 34 ]. These perspectives may be grouped into five main criteria Table 1. These five criteria correspond to four categories, including economy, technology, environment, and society, which were used to assess renewable energy in multi-criteria decision-making in the literature [ 36 ].

The four categories in Table 1 , economy, technology, environment, and society, are the main categories that shape the strategical decisions of renewable energy deployment in cities [ 36 ]. The five assessment criteria in Table 1 are extracted from literature [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 11 , 18 , 34 ] and belong to one or more of the four categories. Table 1 shows the mapping between the five assessment criteria and four assessment categories.

After the five criteria for the assessment of energy alternatives are identified based on literature review, the next step is to determine weights for each criterion using the AHP. Consistent input from multiple experts are compiled and used to calculate the weights of criteria. These criteria are then used to assess energy alternatives for a particular city. For each criterion, an expert is presented with multiple energy alternatives and the expert provides a performance score for each alternative for the criterion.

The seven energy alternatives assessed in this study are efficiency, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, nuclear, and hydroelectric. The first alternative, efficiency, indicates that investment may be made to improve energy efficiency of existing energy applications, and this is an investment alternative to other renewable energy.

It is important to note that these seven energy alternatives are not mutually exclusive. One or more alternatives may be selected for a particular city depending on available resources.

Table 2 summarizes the five criteria and seven alternatives. Two criteria, cost and maximum capacity, are measurable and have units whereas the other three, environmental impact, job creation, and security, are a combination of tangible and intangible factors and are difficult to measure.

A higher score indicates that X performs relatively well in terms of Y if X is used in Z, and a lower score indicates that X might not be a good choice for Z in terms of Y. The first survey is used to determine the weights for the five criteria through pairwise comparisons. The survey is sent to multiple experts in the fields of renewable energy and energy applications. Responses from a large number of experts help remove or reduce bias in survey results. The second survey is used to obtain performance scores for different energy alternatives.

This survey is completed through interviews with experts who not only are knowledgeable about renewable energy but also have a deep understanding of geographic, social, and environmental characteristics of a particular city. Similar to the first survey, it is also desirable to obtain responses from multiple experts for the second survey. Because the second survey does not involve pairwise comparisons and there are fewer experts who are both knowledgeable about renewable energy and characteristics of a city, one expert for each city is interviewed to complete the second survey.

Figure 1 shows the underlying hierarchical structure of two surveys whose results are used to rank and select renewable energy sources.

Energy Efficiency Policies and Programs | Department of Energy

Metrics details. The primary objective for deploying renewable energy in India is to advance economic development, improve energy security, improve access to energy, and mitigate climate change. Sustainable development is possible by use of sustainable energy and by ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for citizens. The government has designed policies, programs, and a liberal environment to attract foreign investments to ramp up the country in the renewable energy market at a rapid rate. It is anticipated that the renewable energy sector can create a large number of domestic jobs over the following years. This paper aims to present significant achievements, prospects, projections, generation of electricity, as well as challenges and investment and employment opportunities due to the development of renewable energy in India.

Efficient energy use , sometimes simply called energy efficiency , is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services and can also reduce effects of air pollution. For example, insulating a building allows it to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve and maintain a thermal comfort. Installing light-emitting diode bulbs , fluorescent lighting , or natural skylight windows reduces the amount of energy required to attain the same level of illumination compared to using traditional incandescent light bulbs. Improvements in energy efficiency are generally achieved by adopting a more efficient technology or production process [1] or by application of commonly accepted methods to reduce energy losses. There are many motivations to improve energy efficiency. Decreasing energy use reduces energy costs and may result in a financial cost saving to consumers if the energy savings offset any additional costs of implementing an energy-efficient technology. Reducing energy use is also seen as a solution to the problem of minimizing greenhouse gas emissions.

But something the boy had said had made her think. Gracie and Ogilvy knew full well how ravenous their colleagues and competitors could be. For now, tying it with a pale blue scarf. Jus slid into his black armor, up the stairs, the string thudding like a drum, before crashing into a limousine returning from a wedding? Then his surroundings slowly took shape again and placated his spirits.


PDF | This manual is a guide for analyzing the economics of energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE) technologies and projects. The objective of an economic analysis is to provide the information needed to make a for design of policies to incorporate these externalities into resource planning.


Shaping a secure and sustainable energy future for all.

Overall, at least 1. And yet, the electricity required for people to read at night, pump a minimal amount of drinking water and listen to radio broadcasts would amount to less than 1 percent of overall global energy demand. Developing and emerging economies face thus a two-fold energy challenge in the 21st century: Meeting the needs of billions of people who still lack access to basic, modern energy services while simultaneously participating in a global transition to clean, low-carbon energy systems. And historic rates of progress toward increased efficiency, de-carbonization, greater fuel diversity and lower pollutant emissions need to be greatly accelerated in order to do so.

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. DC Field Value Language dc. Renewable energy-supply projects produce heat and electricity using sources of energy which are regenerated over short time periods.

Metrics details. Cities around the world face a great challenge in establishing a long-term strategy for the development of energy alternatives. Previous research tried to identify renewable energy across many different cities.

Shaping a secure and sustainable energy future for all.

Его, пожалуй, могли бы спасти в стране с высокоразвитой медициной, но в Испании у него нет никаких шансов. Два человека…. И вот Халохот уже за спиной жертвы. Как танцор, повторяющий отточенные движения, он взял чуть вправо, положил руку на плечо человеку в пиджаке цвета хаки, прицелился и… выстрелил. Раздались два приглушенных хлопка. Беккер вначале как бы застыл, потом начал медленно оседать.

В обычных обстоятельствах это насторожило бы Стратмора, но ведь он прочитал электронную почту Танкадо, а там говорилось, что весь трюк и заключался в линейной мутации. Решив, что никакой опасности нет, Стратмор запустил файл, минуя фильтры программы Сквозь строй. Сьюзан едва могла говорить. - Никакой Цифровой крепости не существует, - еле слышно пробормотала она под завывание сирены и, обессилев, склонилась над своим компьютером. Танкадо использовал наживку для дурачков… и АНБ ее проглотило. Сверху раздался душераздирающий крик Стратмора. ГЛАВА 86 Когда Сьюзан, едва переводя дыхание, появилась в дверях кабинета коммандера, тот сидел за своим столом, сгорбившись и низко опустив голову, и в свете монитора она увидела капельки пота у него на лбу.


PDF | Renewable energy sources (RES) are gradually becoming one of the key We employ and empirical analysis of the effects from using RES in households sometimes offer tax incentives for energy-efficient projects [.


Introduction

Терминал Хейла ярко светился. Она забыла его отключить. ГЛАВА 37 Спустившись вниз, Беккер подошел к бару. Он совсем выбился из сил. Похожий на карлика бармен тотчас положил перед ним салфетку. - Que bebe usted.

Сотрудник лаборатории систем безопасности схватил ее за руку. - Мисс Флетчер. У нас вирус. Я уверен. Вы должны… Сьюзан вырвала руку и посмотрела на него с возмущением.

Efficient energy use

 - Слово прозвучало как удар хлыста. - Но мой брат… - Сэр, если ваш брат целый день целовался в парке с девчонкой, то это значит, что она работает не в нашем агентстве. У нас очень строгие правила относительно контактов клиента и сопровождающего. - Но… - Вы спутали нас с кем-то другим. У нас всего две рыженькие, Иммакулада и Росио, и ни та ни другая не станут ни с кем спать за деньги.

Ложь подействовала: бедняга даже вспотел. - Че-че-го же вы хотите? - выдавил он заикаясь.  - Я ничего не знаю.

Пуля ударилась о мрамор совсем рядом, и в следующее мгновение он уже летел вниз по гранитным ступеням к узкому проходу, выходя из которого священнослужители поднимались на алтарь как бы по милости Божьей. У подножия ступенек Беккер споткнулся и, потеряв равновесие, неуправляемо заскользил по отполированному камню. Острая боль пронзила вес его тело, когда он приземлился на бок, но мгновение спустя он уже был на ногах и, скрываемый занавешенным входом, сбежал вниз по деревянным ступенькам. Превозмогая боль, он бежал через гардеробную.

Но за два дня до окончания третьего боевого дежурства в его будущем произошел резкий зигзаг. В пьяной драке Хейл случайно убил сослуживца. Корейское искусство самозащиты, тхеквондо, оказалось в большей мере смертоносным, нежели оборонительным.

Танкадо явно терял последние силы, но по-прежнему совал кольцо прямо в лицо тучному господину. Тот протянул руку, взял Танкадо за запястье, поддерживая остававшуюся на весу руку умирающего.

1 Comments

  1. Ceitamadne1951 05.04.2021 at 10:31

    Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: Assessment of Projects and Policies deals with the appraisal of such projects against financial and non-financial.