Primary Data And Secondary Collection In Research Methodology Pdf

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Secondary data

Primary data is when the data is gathered directly from the genuine source. Basically, every information you gather from first-hand experience is primary data. Data is the cornerstone of all statistical research.

But the origin of your data and the way you gather it influences heavily the outcome of your results. Technically, there are three types of data based on their source and availability: primary, secondary and mosaic. In this article, we will familiarize you with primary data and the three main methods of collection. The main criterion is that the data is always collected from your research instead of books or any other written material that comes from second-hand sources.

The fact that this data derives from the original source makes it even more valuable and credible. On the other hand, researchers can tailor and specify their interest and data collecting methods when gathering primary data.

This means, they can choose the perfect group or sample for their research and create a specific environment to collect the desired data. The three main ways of collecting primary data is asking , observing and experimenting this target group. Conducting a survey is the most common data collecting method. The process may look very easy: after we have a sample or focus group, we just ask the questions, record the answers and analyze the survey results.

The tough part is finding the perfect group and the right questions. You can use both close-ended and open-ended questions during the process and the form of the questionnaires can be structured or unstructured.

Both online or offline questionnaires can be used for making a survey, this depends only on the specifications of the target group. If they live in a place without internet connection, your questions will supposedly not be answered this way.

In this case you can use a printed survey, but make sure that the filled papers will be collected back and try to control that the right person fills the survey. Also pay attention to digitalizing the answers. The manual administration can cause dirty data by accidental mistakes. Another way to ask questions is by making an interview. Although this method is really expensive and needs a professional interviewer for the wanted results, its biggest advantage is the vast amount of data you can get this way and that you can dive deep into a specific topic and discover the background of the answers you get.

However, the value of the data might not be as satisfying. The interviewee or the participants might not give you perfectly correct answers. Unconsciously or consciously, they will lie and this can distort the results. Another drawback can be the processing of the answers. At the end of the day you will have hours long voice records that you will listen to over and over again, then take notes of it and then make conclusions.

The second option is observation. Compared to questionnaires, observation has a big advantage : the observed persons do not know that they are being observed, so their behavior will be natural. In this case, you can lock out the unconscious or conscious lies. If it is offline , this data collecting method can only be used on a small scale.

However, online observation methods are widely used nowadays in order to better understand customer habits while surfing in their free time, or during a purchase in a webshop. By using specific cookies on a site, it is pretty easy to gather useful information on how to make your buying processes more streamlined. Of course, according to GDPR this has to be with the consent of the site viewer, but in most cases the observation can be done. Beside external observation there is a method when the observer is incorporated in a group, but without the group being aware of it.

In this way the group can be observed in its natural habitats. There is a very common method of observing when the group knows that they are being observed and they also know the observer.

This situation can be a job interview where the candidates have to work together on specific tasks and the HR professionals analyze their behaviour. It is called the Assessment centre. The third primary data collecting method is the experiment. It is a creative and fast-developing type of data collecting. The common characteristics of every experiment are laboratory conditions and simulated market. In this structured environment, researchers are trying to find the causes , effects and processes that lead to a phenomenon.

The steps of data collection are controlled by the researchers. First, they select a subject to consider. Actions are then conducted, while primary data is being recorded throughout the experiment. After this, data will be processed, explored and analyzed and conclusions are drawn based on the results of analysis.

The biggest advantage of this data collecting method is that you can find answers to questions that could not be answered with any other measuring techniques.

However, only a few companies are qualified enough to lead experiments. This makes the method expensive while it also needs planning and preparation before collecting usable data.

Gathering data from primary sources may be costly , but the value of the original data and the insights gained during the process of collection make these above explained methods undoubtedly essencial. Before you start collecting primary data, always check if there are any secondary sources that you can get the information from. Only collect primary data when you are convinced that there is no other source that you could use. However, collecting data is not the end of the process.

You have to organize, systematize, and evaluate the collected data. And the best way to understand your data is to visualize it. With AnswerMiner , data visualization can be done instantly and no coding is required. Resources Data Visualisation Catalogue. September 01, 6 min read. What Is Primary Data? Survey or Interview? Observing From Inside Beside external observation there is a method when the observer is incorporated in a group, but without the group being aware of it.

Summary Gathering data from primary sources may be costly , but the value of the original data and the insights gained during the process of collection make these above explained methods undoubtedly essencial.

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Data Collection Methods

Secondary research is contrasted with primary research in that primary research involves the generation of data, whereas secondary research uses primary research sources as a source of data for analysis. Common examples of secondary research include textbooks , encyclopedias , news articles, review articles , and meta analyses. When conducting secondary research, authors may draw data from published academic papers, government documents, statistical databases, and historical records. The term is widely used in primary research , legal research and market research. The principal methodology in health secondary research is the systematic review , commonly using meta-analytic statistical techniques, but other methods of synthesis, like realist reviews and meta-narrative [5] reviews, have been developed in recent years. Such secondary research uses the primary research of others typically in the form of research publications and reports.

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One of the major elements and basis of statistical research is data collection, where the most basic data that can be collected in this process is primary data. In other words, we can say that data is the basis of all statistical operations and primary data is the simplest of all data. Primary data is one of the 2 main types of data, with the second one being the secondary data. These 2 data types have important uses in research, but in this article, we will be considering the primary data type. We will introduce you to what primary data is, examples, and the various techniques of collecting primary data. Primary data is a type of data that is collected by researchers directly from main sources through interviews, surveys, experiments, etc.


Primary data is data that is collected by a researcher for the first time from first-hand resources using methods like experiments, observations, interviews and [70]. In this research, primary data was collected through questionnaire, because empirical data is essential for this paper research approach.


Secondary research

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Secondary Data

Primary Sources of Data and Secondary Sources of Data

Data collection is a process of collecting information from all the relevant sources to find answers to the research problem, test the hypothesis and evaluate the outcomes. Data collection methods can be divided into two categories: secondary methods of data collection and primary methods of data collection. Secondary data is a type of data that has already been published in books, newspapers, magazines, journals, online portals etc. There is an abundance of data available in these sources about your research area in business studies, almost regardless of the nature of the research area. Therefore, application of appropriate set of criteria to select secondary data to be used in the study plays an important role in terms of increasing the levels of research validity and reliability. These criteria include, but not limited to date of publication, credential of the author, reliability of the source, quality of discussions, depth of analyses, the extent of contribution of the text to the development of the research area etc.

Primary data is when the data is gathered directly from the genuine source. Basically, every information you gather from first-hand experience is primary data. Data is the cornerstone of all statistical research. But the origin of your data and the way you gather it influences heavily the outcome of your results. Technically, there are three types of data based on their source and availability: primary, secondary and mosaic. In this article, we will familiarize you with primary data and the three main methods of collection. The main criterion is that the data is always collected from your research instead of books or any other written material that comes from second-hand sources.

This chapter examines prerequisites for enabling reuse or secondary analysis of qualitative data informally known as SAQD that has not been collected by the analyst. The first part of the chapter provides an overview of what people are doing with existing data, from new analysis to revisiting one's own data, and what challenges face them in their quest. The second part poses questions that a secondary analyst can ask of data, such as, are the data to hand a good fit for the proposed project? The role of detective comes to mind, appraising the materials and examining provenance to satisfy oneself that there is adequate context surrounding the data and that the limitations Show page numbers Download PDF. Search form icon-arrow-top icon-arrow-top.


study and time factor, both sources of data i.e. primary and secondary data have been selected. These are used in combination to give proper.


The Three Ways of Primary Data Collection

What is Primary Data? + [Examples & Collection Methods]

Secondary data refers to data that is collected by someone other than the primary user. Secondary data analysis can save time that would otherwise be spent collecting data and, particularly in the case of quantitative data , can provide larger and higher-quality databases that would be unfeasible for any individual researcher to collect on their own. However, secondary data analysis can be less useful in marketing research, as data may be outdated or inaccurate. Government departments and agencies routinely collect information when registering people or carrying out transactions, or for record keeping — usually when delivering a service. This information is called administrative data. A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.

2 Comments

  1. Alasmicra 05.04.2021 at 22:57

    Research does not always involve collection of data from the participants.

  2. Elita G. 10.04.2021 at 11:18

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