Insect Defenses Adaptive Mechanisms And Strategies Of Prey And Predators Pdf
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With more than , described species, insects are the dominant terrestrial animal life on earth in diversity, numbers, and biomass. Most insects have short generation times, giving the majority of species a tremendous reproductive potential. For example, fruit fly pairs produce 30 generations per year with an average of 40 eggs per pair. However, unlimited reproduction does not occur, nor does every organism born live to reproduce. When the size of a population approaches an environment's carrying capacity , competition for resources will limit reproduction. In addition, predators regulate some prey populations. Predation involves four steps: search , recognition , capture , and handling.
Scott K. Sakaluk Part 2. Predatory Strategies and Tactics Introduction David L. Evans 4. Prey Selection in Web-Building Spiders and Evolution of Prey Defenses.
Predation & herbivory
Box , FI Joensuu, Finland. Many insects are chemically defended against predatory vertebrates and invertebrates. Nevertheless, our understanding of the evolution and diversity of insect defenses remains limited, since most studies have focused on visual signaling of defenses against birds, thereby implicitly underestimating the impact of insectivorous insects.
The chemistry of antipredator defense by secondary compounds in neotropical lepidoptera: facts, perspectives and caveats. Chemical defense against predation in butterflies and moths has been studied since nineteenth century. A classical example is that of the larvae of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus , which feed on leaves of Asclepias curassavica Asclepiadaceae , sequestering cardenolides.
Plants defend against herbivores with mechanical wounding, barriers, secondary metabolites, and attraction of parasitoids. Herbivores, both large and small, use plants as food and actively chew them. Plants have developed a variety of strategies to discourage or kill attackers. The first line of defense in plants is an intact and impenetrable barrier composed of bark and a waxy cuticle. Both protect plants against herbivores. Other adaptations against herbivores include hard shells, thorns modified branches , and spines modified leaves.
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