Anatomy And Physiology Of Muscular System Pdf

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anatomy and physiology of muscular system pdf

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Published: 03.04.2021

Walker, Warren F. Noback, Charles R. Last reviewed: April

What are the main functions of the muscular system?

Human muscle system , the muscles of the human body that work the skeletal system , that are under voluntary control, and that are concerned with movement, posture, and balance. Broadly considered, human muscle—like the muscles of all vertebrates—is often divided into striated muscle or skeletal muscle , smooth muscle , and cardiac muscle. Smooth muscle is under involuntary control and is found in the walls of blood vessels and of structures such as the urinary bladder , the intestines , and the stomach. Cardiac muscle makes up the mass of the heart and is responsible for the rhythmic contractions of that vital pumping organ; it too is under involuntary control. With very few exceptions, the arrangement of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle in humans is identical to the arrangement found in other vertebrate animals. This article is concerned with the skeletal muscles of the human body, with emphasis on muscle movements and the changes that have occurred in human skeletal musculature as a result of the long evolutionary process that involved the assumption of upright posture. Smooth muscle and cardiac muscle and the physiology of muscle contraction are treated at great length in the article muscle.

The muscular system consists of various types of muscle that each play a crucial role in the function of the body. Muscles allow a person to move, speak, and chew. They control heartbeat, breathing, and digestion. Other seemingly unrelated functions, including temperature regulation and vision, also rely on the muscular system. The muscular system contains more than muscles that work together to enable the full functioning of the body. Skeletal muscles are the only muscles that can be consciously controlled. They are attached to bones, and contracting the muscles causes movement of those bones.

List of skeletal muscles of the human body

Bones are an important part of the musculoskeletal system. This article, the first in a two-part series on the skeletal system, reviews the anatomy and physiology of bone. The skeletal system is formed of bones and cartilage, which are connected by ligaments to form a framework for the remainder of the body tissues. This article, the first in a two-part series on the structure and function of the skeletal system, reviews the anatomy and physiology of bone. Understanding the structure and purpose of the bone allows nurses to understand common pathophysiology and consider the most-appropriate steps to improve musculoskeletal health. Citation: Walker J Skeletal system 1: the anatomy and physiology of bones.

This is a table of skeletal muscles of the human anatomy. There are around skeletal muscles [1] within the typical human body. Nevertheless, the exact number is difficult to define because different sources group muscles differently, e. The muscles of the human body can be categorized into a number of groups which include muscles relating to the head and neck, muscles of the torso or trunk, muscles of the upper limbs, and muscles of the lower limbs. The action refers to the action of each muscle from the standard anatomical position. In other positions, other actions may be performed.

The musculoskeletal system is an organ system that enables an organism to move, support itself, and maintain stability during locomotion. The musculoskeletal system also known as the locomotor system is an organ system that gives animals including humans the ability to move, using the muscular and skeletal systems. It provides form, support, stability, and movement to the body. Its primary functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, and protecting vital organs. The bones of the skeletal system provide stability to the body analogous to a reinforcement bar in concrete construction.


Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology. The Muscular System Skeletal Muscle. Slide b. • Epimysium – covers the entire skeletal muscle. • Fascia – on​.


What are the main functions of the muscular system?

By the end of this section, you will be able to identify the following muscles and give their origins, insertions, actions and innervations:. The skeletal muscles are divided into axial muscles of the trunk and head and appendicular muscles of the arms and legs categories. This system reflects the bones of the skeleton system, which are also arranged in this manner. Some of the axial muscles may seem to blur the boundaries because they cross over to the appendicular skeleton. The first grouping of the axial muscles you will review includes the muscles of the head and neck, then you will review the muscles of the vertebral column, and finally you will review the oblique and rectus muscles.

Human muscle system , the muscles of the human body that work the skeletal system , that are under voluntary control, and that are concerned with movement, posture, and balance. Broadly considered, human muscle—like the muscles of all vertebrates—is often divided into striated muscle or skeletal muscle , smooth muscle , and cardiac muscle. Smooth muscle is under involuntary control and is found in the walls of blood vessels and of structures such as the urinary bladder , the intestines , and the stomach. Cardiac muscle makes up the mass of the heart and is responsible for the rhythmic contractions of that vital pumping organ; it too is under involuntary control. With very few exceptions, the arrangement of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle in humans is identical to the arrangement found in other vertebrate animals.

The muscular system is composed of specialized cells called muscle fibers. Their predominant function is contractibility. Muscles, attached to bones or internal organs and blood vessels, are responsible for movement.

11.4 Identify the skeletal muscles and give their origins, insertions, actions and innervations

Bones and skeletal muscles undergo a gradual age-related degeneration that accelerates frailty and makes older people more prone to sarcopenia, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and falls. With advancing age, the skeletal muscles lose strength and mass while the bones lose density and undergo decalcification and demineralisation. Consequently, older people often experience a loss of strength, become more prone to falls, fractures and frailty, develop a stooping curvature of the spine, and have conditions such as sarcopenia, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.

2 Comments

  1. John L. 03.04.2021 at 14:48

    In this chapter we describe the gross anatomy of the muscular system and predict for the body on the basis of muscle physiology alone.

  2. Aaliyah L. 08.04.2021 at 23:55

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