Recycling And Recovery Of Plastics Pdf
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Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products. Materials recovery facilities are responsible for sorting and processing plastics.
- ISO 15270:2008
- Accelerating plastic recovery in the United States
- Recycling household plastics waste
- Plastic recycling
Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products. Materials recovery facilities are responsible for sorting and processing plastics. As of , due to limitations in their economic viability, these facilities have struggled to make a meaningful contribution to the plastic supply chain.
However, the industry has lobbied for the expansion of recycling while these companies have continued to increase the amount of virgin plastic being produced. When different types of plastics are melted together, they tend to phase-separate , like oil and water, and set in these layers. The phase boundaries cause structural weakness in the resulting material, meaning that polymer blends are useful in only limited applications. This is in part why the plastics industry has developed the resin identification codes.
The two most widely manufactured plastics, polypropylene and polyethylene , behave this way, which limits their utility for recycling. Each time plastic is recycled, additional virgin materials must be added to help improve the integrity of the material. Therefore, even recycled plastic has new plastic material added in.
Moreover, the same piece of plastic can only be recycled about 2—3 times. Since almost all plastic is non- biodegradable , recycling can be part of reducing plastic in the waste stream. This is important, for example, for reducing the approximately 8 million metric tons of waste plastic that enters the Earth's ocean every year. Plastic recycling started in the s, in part as a response to the growing amount of plastic waste. As early as the early s, petrochemical industry leaders understood that the vast majority of plastic they produced would never be recycled.
For example, an April report written by industry scientists for industry executive states that "There is no recovery from obsolete products. However, by the late s, industry leaders also knew that the public must be kept feeling good about purchasing plastic products if their industry was to continue to prosper.
They also need to quell legislation that had been proposed to regulate the plastic being sold. As part of this effort, the industry created an organization called the Council for Solid Waste Solutions, to sell the idea of plastic recycling to the public, to lobby American municipalities to launch expensive plastic waste collection programs, and to lobby U. They were confident, however, that the recycling initiatives would not end up recovering and reusing plastic in amounts anywhere near sufficient to hurt their profits in selling new "virgin" plastic products because they understood that the recycling efforts that they were promoting were likely to fail.
This is because they knew that the sorting and re-processing of hundreds of different types of recovered plastic products was cost-prohibitive. One of the main reasons that China implemented of the National Sword Policy, was to decrease the import of low quality plastics that are hard to sort and recycle and were accumulating in trash dumps and at recyclers. Broadly, there are two major ways to recycle plastic:  1 mechanical recycling "chop and wash" ,  where the plastic is washed, ground into powders and melted, and 2 chemical recycling, where the plastic is broken down into monomers.
Before recycling, most plastics are sorted according to their resin type. In the past, plastic reclaimers used the resin identification code RIC , a method of categorization of polymer types, which was developed by the Society of the Plastics Industry in Most plastic reclaimers do not rely on the RIC now; they use various sorting systems to identify the resin, ranging from manual sorting and picking of plastic materials to automated mechanical processes that involve shredding, sieving, separation by density, air, liquid, or magnetic, and complex spectrophotometric distribution technologies e.
After sorting, for mechanical recycling the plastic recyclables are then shredded. These shredded fragments then undergo processes to eliminate impurities like paper labels. This material is melted and often extruded into the form of pellets which are then used to manufacture other products.
The highest quality purification may be referred to as "regeneration". Plastic pyrolysis can convert petroleum-based waste streams such as plastics into fuels and carbons. The pyrolysis oil can be used to generate power, but is less efficient than commercial oil diesel and gasoline.
The physical properties of pyrolysis oil are similar to those of commercial oil, except for the fact that pyrolysis oil have higher viscosity than commercial oils. The chemical properties of the two oils are similar to each other. One of the variation of these methods is catalytic conversions of the waste plastic.
Popularized by Prof D-r D. Donkov, its commonly pirogenetic process with fractional condensation via catalytic plates. The "key" is type of catalytic plates, based on the sintered materials. Formula is closed by inventor. The products are similar to common fuels on the market. Heat compression takes all unsorted, cleaned plastic in all forms, from soft plastic bags to hard industrial waste , and mixes the load in tumblers large rotating drums resembling giant clothes dryers. The most obvious benefit to this method is that all plastic is recyclable, not just matching forms.
However, the method is criticised for the energy costs of rotating the drums and heating the post-melt pipes. Distributed recycling of plastics using additive manufacturing or DRAM can include mechanical grinding to make granules for 1 fused granular fabrication, 2 heated syringe printing, 3 3-D printed molds coupled to injection molding and 4 filament production in a recyclebot to fused filament fabrication.
Preliminary life-cycle analysis LCA indicates that such distributed recycling of HDPE to make filament for fused filament 3D printers in rural regions is energetically favorable to either using virgin resin or conventional recycling processes because of reductions in transportation energy. For some polymers, it is possible to convert them back into monomers, for example, PET can be treated with an alcohol and a catalyst to form a dialkyl terephthalate.
The terephthalate diester can be used with ethylene glycol to form a new polyester polymer, thus making it possible to use the pure polymer again. An estimated 60 companies are pursuing chemical recycling as of In , Eastman Chemical Company announced initiatives for methanolysis of polyesters and polymer gasification to syngas designed to handle a greater variety of used material. In , Brightmark Energy in the United States began building a facility to convert , tons of mixed plastic per into diesel, naphtha blend stocks, and wax ;  the company plans to expand into building another plant which can process an additional , tons of plastic per year.
Polymers such as PET can also be treated with natural or engineered enzymes to generate chemically recycled monomers. In a issue of Nature , Tournier et al. Using these enzymes, the researchers produced usable quantities of monomer; after additional purification, this recovered monomer was successfully used to produce PET resin with mechanical properties comparable to virgin PET. Chemical recycling can be divided into three categories, which are Purification, Depolymerisation, and Feedstock thermal conversion recycling.
Pyrolysis is one of the two main processes of Feedstock recycling. In pyrolysis, there are two different processes, which are thermal pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis. The final products of these processes are liquid oil, hydrocarbon-rich gas, and char. Compare with the thermal pyrolysis process, the catalytic pyrolysis process has the presence of a catalyst. Different catalysts, such as fluid catalytic cracking FCC or natural zeolite NZ are mixed with the sample feedstock in the pyrolysis reactor in order to improve the percentage of product yield of catalytic pyrolysis.
A study reported that temperature controls the decomposition behavior and the breaking reaction of the plastics materials. Thus, different temperatures produce different products.
Based on these parameters, recycling facilities can control the products created from the pyrolysis of plastic waste. A process has also been developed in which many kinds of plastic can be used as a carbon source in place of coke in the recycling of scrap steel. One such method is called compatibilization which uses special chemical bridging agents called compatibilizers to maintain the quality of mixed polymers.
Recently, the use of block copolymers as "molecular stitches"  or "macromolecular welding flux" has been proposed  to overcome the difficulties associated with phase separation during recycling. Plastic bags can be recycled by melting and converting them into plastic tiles in villages at a very minimal cost. PET recyclers further sort the baled bottles and they are washed and flaked or flaked and then washed. Non-PET fractions such as caps and labels are removed during this process.
The clean flake is dried. Further treatment can take place e. This sorted PET waste is crushed, chopped into flakes, pressed into bales, and offered for sale. Other major outlets for RPET are new containers food-contact or non-food-contact produced either by injection stretch blow moulding into bottles and jars or by thermoforming amorphous PET APET sheet to produce clamshells, blister packs and collation trays.
A total of 1. Plastic 2, high-density polyethylene HDPE is a commonly recycled plastic. HDPE's highly crystalline structure makes it a strong, high density, moderately stiff plastic.
A major benefit of thermoplastics is that they can be heated to melting point, cooled, and reheated again without significant degradation.
Instead of burning, thermoplastics like PE Polyethylene liquefy, allowing them to be easily extruded or injection molded and turned into brand new HDPE pipe. Often it is typically downcycled into plastic lumber , tables, roadside curbs, benches, truck cargo liners, trash receptacles, stationery e. Most polystyrene products are not recycled due to the lack of incentive to invest in the compactors and logistical systems required.
As a result, manufacturers cannot obtain sufficient scrap. When it is not used to make more EPS, foam scrap can be turned into clothes hangers, park benches, flower pots, toys, rulers, stapler bodies, seedling containers, picture frames, and architectural molding from recycled PS. Recycled EPS is also used in many metal casting operations. Rastra is made from EPS that is combined with cement to be used as an insulating amendment in the making of concrete foundations and walls.
Since the s, American manufacturers have produced insulating concrete forms made using recycled EPS. The white plastic polystyrene foam peanuts used as packing material are often accepted by shipping stores for reuse. Successful trials in Israel have shown that plastic films recovered from mixed municipal waste streams can be recycled into useful household products such as buckets.
Similarly, agricultural plastics such as mulch film, drip tape and silage bags are being diverted from the waste stream and successfully recycled  into much larger products for industrial applications such as plastic composite railroad ties.
CNN reports that Dr. This road surface is claimed to be very durable and monsoon rain resistant. The plastic is sorted by hand, which is economical in India. The process chops thin-film road-waste into a light fluff of tiny flakes that hot-mix plants can uniformly introduce into viscous bitumen with a customized dosing machine.
Tests at both Bangalore and the Indian Road Research Centre indicate that roads built using this 'KK process' will have longer useful lives and better resistance to cold, heat, cracking, and rutting, by a factor of 3. Some new innovations propose plastics much easier recycled, like polydiketoenamines. Prosthetics are being made from recycled plastic bottles and lids around the world. Major plastic recycling equipment companies include Tomra.
In , startup Precious Plastic created a marketplace called Bazar for selling machines and products targeted to DIY designers to recycle plastic.
As of , approximately 6. These rates are lower than certain other materials, like steel cans, that had an estimated recycling rate of The percentage of plastic that can be fully recycled, rather than downcycled or go to waste, can be increased when manufacturers of packaged goods minimize mixing of packaging materials and eliminate contaminants.
Accelerating plastic recovery in the United States
Extracting value from plastics waste can be achieved through recycling and energy recovery, helping to save money and meet sustainability objectives. Mechanical recycling of plastics refers to the processing of plastics waste into secondary raw material or products without significantly changing the chemical structure of the material. In principle, all types of thermoplastics can be mechanically recycled with little or no quality impairment. Waste streams that can easily provide clean plastic of a single type in large quantities are ideal for mechanical recycling and represent a win-win situation from an environmental and economic perspective: environmental benefits from substituting virgin material generally exceed the environmental burden from collection, sorting, transport and recycling operations, while the costs of such operations can be outweighed by potential revenues from selling recyclates on the market. Plastics and plastics-containing waste that cannot be sustainably mechanically recycled to the required standard from an economic and environmental perspective provides a valuable resource for other recovery solutions such as feedstock recycling and energy recovery to maximise the recovery of its embedded energy and resources. PlasticsEurope is committed to helping develop quality-focused recycling processes for plastics waste and to promote such solutions in all European countries.
ACC is investing in research to improve understanding of how chemicals impact health and the environment. View activities underway by the chemical industry and to help provide resources to address and fight the impacts of COVID Studies continue to confirm no association between high molecular weight phthalates and human adverse health effects. A blog of the American Chemistry Council: driving innovation, creating jobs, and enhancing safety. Choose from the list of topics below. The surge of natural gas production from shale has reversed the fortunes of the U. Because the competitiveness of plastic resins depends on energy costs—in particular, the difference between oil and natural gas prices—shale gas development has changed the competitive landscape for U.
Recycling household plastics waste
In the plastic bottle was introduced nationwide. In the thirteen years since that historic and some say environmentally devastating occasion, the consumer increasingly has embraced plastic packaging. Each American uses about pounds of plastic per year, according to Earthworks Group, and about 60 pounds of it is discarded within minutes or seconds after opening.
Plastic recycling refers to the process of recovering waste or scrap plastic and reprocessing the materials into functional and useful products. This activity is known as the plastic recycling process. This approach helps to conserve resources and diverts plastics from landfills or unintended destinations such as oceans. Plastics are durable, lightweight and inexpensive materials. They can readily be molded into various products which find uses in a plethora of applications.
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PDF | The disposal of waste plastics has become a major worldwide environmental problem. The USA, Europe and Japan generate annually.
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Ущерб в долларах. - Нам нужна точная цифра, - напомнила Сьюзан. - Оценки ущерба всюду приводятся разные. - Она еще раз взглянула на текст.
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Найдя то, что искала, Мидж пробежала глазами цифры и минуту спустя кивнула: - Ты прав, Чед. ТРАНСТЕКСТ работал на полную мощность. Расход энергии даже чуть выше обычного: более полумиллиона киловатт-часов с полуночи вчерашнего дня.
Si. Punqui. - Панк.
В этой недоступной для посторонних базе данных хранились чертежи ультрасовременного оружия, списки подлежащих охране свидетелей, данные полевых агентов, подробные предложения по разработке тайных операций.
Стратмор и Сьюзан отволокли его туда через шифровалку и связали ему руки и ноги толстым кабелем от одного из лазерных принтеров. Сьюзан до сих пор была ошеломлена ловкими действиями коммандера. Он разыграл звонок по телефону. И в результате одолел Хейла, освободил Сьюзан и выиграл время для переделки Цифровой крепости. Сьюзан с опаской посмотрела на связанного шифровальщика.
Стратмор понял, что ставки повышаются. Он впутал в это дело Сьюзан и должен ее вызволить. Голос его прозвучал, как всегда, твердо: - А как же мой план с Цифровой крепостью.