Structure Of Dna And Rna Pdf

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structure of dna and rna pdf

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Published: 01.04.2021

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DNA deoxyribonucleic acid is the genomic material in cells that contains the genetic information used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. DNA, along with RNA and proteins, is one of the three major macromolecules that are essential for life. Within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, DNA is organized into structures called chromosomes.

Nucleic acid

DNA is the genetic material found in all living organisms, ranging from single-celled bacteria to multicellular mammals. It is found in the nucleus of eukaryotes and in the chloroplasts and mitochondria. In prokaryotes, the DNA is not enclosed in a membranous envelope, but rather free-floating within the cytoplasm. The entire genetic content of a cell is known as its genome and the study of genomes is genomics. In eukaryotic cells, but not in prokaryotes, DNA forms a complex with histone proteins to form chromatin, the substance of eukaryotic chromosomes. A chromosome may contain tens of thousands of genes.

Nucleic acid , naturally occurring chemical compound that is capable of being broken down to yield phosphoric acid , sugars, and a mixture of organic bases purines and pyrimidines. Nucleic acids are the main information-carrying molecules of the cell , and, by directing the process of protein synthesis , they determine the inherited characteristics of every living thing. DNA is the master blueprint for life and constitutes the genetic material in all free-living organisms and most viruses. RNA is the genetic material of certain viruses, but it is also found in all living cells, where it plays an important role in certain processes such as the making of proteins. Nucleic acids are naturally occurring chemical compounds that serve as the primary information-carrying molecules in cells.

This page, looking at the structure of DNA, is the first in a sequence of pages leading on to how DNA replicates makes copies of itself, and then to how information stored in DNA is used to make protein molecules. This material is aimed at 16 - 18 year old chemistry students. If you are interested in this from a biological or biochemical point of view, you may find these pages a useful introduction before you get more information somewhere else. Chemistry students at UK A level or its various equivalents should not waste time on this. The booklet is written for A level biology students, and goes into far more detail than you will need for chemistry purposes. These days, most people know about DNA as a complex molecule which carries the genetic code.

DNA, RNA, Genes and Chromosomes

They carry the genetic blueprint of a cell in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA and the instructions for the function of the cell in the form of ribonucleic acid RNA. Chromosomes are composed of DNA arranged into genes and other non-coding areas. The genes are the blueprints for making various molecules that cells need to function, including enzymes. The non-coding areas are critical for influencing when genes are activated or expressed and play diverse other roles in cell function, some of which are not yet understood. DNA is a relatively stable molecule that is tightly controlled by the host cell. It plays diverse, reactive functions in cells. When most genes are expressed, they are translated into messenger RNA mRNA molecules, which are then transcribed into proteins.

Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are the biopolymers , or large biomolecules , essential to all known forms of life. They are composed of nucleotides , which are the monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar , a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. If the sugar is a compound ribose , the polymer is RNA ribonucleic acid ; if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose , the polymer is DNA deoxyribonucleic acid. Nucleic acids are naturally occurring chemical compounds that serve as the primary information-carrying molecules in cells.

DNA and RNA

DNA, RNA, Protein, and Gene Expression

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Стратмору нужен был козел отпущения. Кроме всего прочего, Хейл был настоящим ходячим несчастьем, готовым свалиться на голову в любую минуту. Из задумчивости Стратмора вывел звонок мобильного телефона, едва слышный в завывании сирен и свисте пара. Не останавливаясь, он отстегнул телефон от брючного ремня. - Говорите. - Где мой ключ? - прозвучал знакомый голос. - Кто со мной говорит? - крикнул Стратмор, стараясь перекрыть шум.

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Чрезвычайная ситуация. Она не помнила, чтобы это слово срывалось когда-нибудь с губ коммандера Стратмора. Чрезвычайная. В шифровалке. Она не могла себе этого представить. - С-слушаюсь, сэр.

Мидж стояла на своем: - Но, сэр. Коммандер Стратмор обошел систему Сквозь строй.

2 Comments

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