Concepts And Techniques Of Geographic Information Systems Pdf

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SUMMARY This chapter introduces the planner to the concept and applications of geographic information systems GIS for natural hazard management in the context of integrated development planning.

Concepts and Techniques of Geographic Information Systems, 2nd Edition

A geographic information system GIS is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. The key word to this technology is Geography — this means that some portion of the data is spatial.

In other words, data that is in some way referenced to locations on the earth. Coupled with this data is usually tabular data known as attribute data. Attribute data can be generally defined as additional information about each of the spatial features.

An example of this would be schools. The actual location of the schools is the spatial data. Additional data such as the school name, level of education taught, student capacity would make up the attribute data. It is the partnership of these two data types that enables GIS to be such an effective problem solving tool through spatial analysis. GIS is more than just software. GIS can be used as tool in both problem solving and decision making processes, as well as for visualization of data in a spatial environment.

Mapping where things are. We can map the spatial location of real-world features and visualize the spatial relationships among them. Example: below we see a map of frac sand mine locations and sandstone areas in Wisconsin.

We can see visual patterns in the data by determining that frac sand mining activity occurs in a region with a specific type of geology. Mapping quantities.

People map quantities, such as where the most and least are, to find places that meet their criteria or to see the relationships between places. Example: below is a map of cemetery locations in Wisconsin.

The map shows the cemetery locations as dots dot density and each county is color coded to show where the most and least are lighter blue means fewer cemeteries. Mapping densities. Sometimes it is more important to map concentrations, or a quantity normalized by area or total number. Example: Below we have mapped the population density of Manhattan total population counts normalized by the area in sq. Finding what is inside. We can determine the characteristics of "inside" by creating specific criteria to define an area of interest AOI.

Example: below is a map showing a flood event and the tax parcels and buildings in the floodway. We can use tools like CLIP to determine which parcels fall inside the flood event.

Further, we can use attributes of the parcels to determine potential costs of property damage. Finding what is nearby. We can find out what is happening within a set distance of a feature or event by mapping what is nearby using geoprocessing tools like BUFFER.

Example: below we see a map of drive times from a central location in the City of Madison, WI. We can use streets as a network and add specific criteria like speed limit and intersection controls to determine how far a driver can typically get in 5, 10, or 15 minutes.

Map courtesy of UW Extension. Mapping change. We can map the change in a specific geographic area to anticipate future conditions, decide on a course of action, or to evaluate the results of an action or policy.

Example: below we see land use maps of Barnstable, MA showing changes in residential development from to The dark green shows forest, while bright yellow shows residential development. Applications like this can help inform community planning processes and policies.

Overview Geospatial data is created, shared, and stored in many different formats. The two primary data types are raster and vector. Vector data is represented as either points, lines, or polygons.

Discrete or thematic data is best represented as vector. Data that has an exact location, or hard boundaries are typically shown as vector data. Examples are county boundaries, the location of roads and railroads using lines, or point data indicating the location of fire hydrants. By contrast, raster data is best suited for continuous data, or information that does not have hard boundaries or locations.

As rasters, the data are viewed as a series of grid cells where each cell has a value representing the feature being observed. Think of raster data as appropriate for modeling surfaces like elevation, temperature, precipitation, or soil Ph. These phenomena are measured at intervals think weather stations , and values in between are interpolated to create a continuous surface.

Raster data also includes remote sensing imagery, like aerial photography and satellite imagery. Vector Formats:. To have a complete shapefile, you must have at least 3 files with the same prefix name and with the following extensions:. Additionally, you may have a. All these files must be saved in the same workspace. GDB: Geodatabase The file geodatabase is a collection of geographic datasets of various types, with the most basic types being vector, raster, and tabular data.

There are three types of geodatabases: file, personal, and ArcSDE. It has largely been replaced by the geodatabase format. Coverages do not have an individual file extension. Instead it is composed of two folders within a "workspace" which each contain multiple files.

One of the two folders carries the name of the coverage, and contains a number of various. The other folder is an "info" folder, which typically contains.

E Arc Export or Interchange Format. Raster Formats:. One of the two folders carries the name of the grid, and contains a number of various. The primary difference among them is the technique used to store brightness values captured simultaneously in each of several colors or spectral bands. File formats vary by deliverable - but raw LiDAR point cloud data has a. LAS file extension. What is GIS? Jaime Martindale. Email Me. Contact: N.

Definition of GIS A geographic information system GIS is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. Map courtesy of UW Extension 6. Subjects: Datasets , Geography.

What is GIS?

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Concepts and Techniques of Geographic Information Systems. By C. P. LO and ALBERT. K. W. YEUNG. (Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, ).


Concepts and Techniques of Geographic Information Systems, 2nd Edition

A geographic information system GIS is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. The key word to this technology is Geography — this means that some portion of the data is spatial. In other words, data that is in some way referenced to locations on the earth. Coupled with this data is usually tabular data known as attribute data. Attribute data can be generally defined as additional information about each of the spatial features.

Developments in technologies have evolved in a much wider use of technology throughout science, government, and business; resulting in the expansion of geographic information systems. GIS is the academic study and practice of presenting geographical data through a system designed to capture, store, analyze, and manage geographic information. Geographic Information Systems: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications is a collection of knowledge on the latest advancements and research of geographic information systems.

What is GIS? A framework to organize, communicate, and understand the science of our world. A geographic information system GIS is a framework for gathering, managing, and analyzing data.

 - Ты найдешь терминал Хейла, а я тебя прикрою. Сьюзан была отвратительна даже мысль об. - Разве нельзя дождаться звонка Дэвида о той копии, что была у Танкадо. Стратмор покачал головой.

Essentials of Geographic Information Systems

Задействованная ею программа была написана на языке программирования Лимбо, который не был его специальностью. Но ему хватило одного взгляда, чтобы понять: никакая это не диагностика.

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