Genetic Engineering Principles And Methods Pdf
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- Genetic Engineering: Principles and Methods
- What is genetic modification (GM) of crops and how is it done?
- Bioseparations Engineering. Principles, Practice, and Economics
Genetic Engineering: Principles and Methods
The characteristics of all living organisms are determined by their genetic makeup and its interaction with the environment. The genetic makeup of an organism is its genome, which in all plants and animals is made of DNA. The genome contains genes, regions of DNA that usually carry the instructions for making proteins. It is these proteins that give the plant its characteristics. For example, the colour of flowers is determined by genes that carry the instructions for making proteins involved in producing the pigments that colour petals.
This could include changing the way the plant grows, or making it resistant to a particular disease. One of the methods used to transfer DNA is to coat the surface of small metal particles with the relevant DNA fragment, and bombard the particles into the plant cells. Another method is to use a bacterium or virus. There are many viruses and bacteria that transfer their DNA into a host cell as a normal part of their life cycle.
For GM plants, the bacterium most frequently used is called Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The gene of interest is transferred into the bacterium and the bacterial cells then transfer the new DNA to the genome of the plant cells.
The plant cells that have successfully taken up the DNA are then grown to create a new plant. This is possible because individual plant cells have an impressive capacity to generate entire plants. On rare occasions, the process of DNA transfer can happen without deliberate human intervention. For example the sweet potato contains DNA sequences that were transferred thousands of years ago, from Agrobacterium bacteria into the sweet potato genome.
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What is genetic modification (GM) of crops and how is it done?
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This method would be similar to damaging a body part to determine its function. An insect that loses a wing cannot fly, which means that the function of the wing is flight. The classical genetic method would compare insects that cannot fly with insects that can fly, and observe that the non-flying insects have lost wings. Similarly, mutating or deleting genes provides researchers with clues about gene function. The methods used to disable gene function are collectively called gene targeting. Gene targeting is the use of recombinant DNA vectors to alter the expression of a particular gene, either by introducing mutations in a gene, or by eliminating the expression of a certain gene by deleting a part or all of the gene sequence from the genome of an organism. The process of testing for suspected genetic defects before administering treatment is called genetic diagnosis by genetic testing.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. This chapter provides a brief description of genetic modification methods used to develop new plant, animal, and microbial strains for use as human food. The next chapter Chapter 3 presents a detailed analysis of the likelihood for these methods to result in unintentional compositional changes. Modification to produce desired traits in plants, animals, and microbes used for food began about 10, years ago. These changes, along with natural evolutionary changes, have resulted in common food species that are now genetically different from their ancestors. Advantageous outcomes of these genetic modifications include increased food production, reliability, and yields; enhanced taste and nutritional value; and decreased losses due to various biotic and abiotic stresses, such as fungal and bacterial pathogens.
Moreover, the use of viruses to deliver DNA to cultured cells has progressed in tandem with physical methods of supplying DNA to cells [5–7].
Bioseparations Engineering. Principles, Practice, and Economics
Knowledge of the genetic basis of biological functioning continues to grow at an astronomical rate, as do the challenges and opportunities of applying this information to the production of therapeutic compounds, speciality biochemicals, functional food ingredients, environmentally friendly biocatalysts, and new bioproducts from renewable resources. While genetic engineering of living organisms transforms the science of genomics into treatments for cancer, diabetes, and heart disease, or products for industry and agriculture, the science and technology of bioseparations are the keys to delivering these products in a purified form suitable for use by people. The methods, theory, and materials that reduce the science of bioseparations to practice, whether in the laboratory or the plant, are the subjects of Bioseparations Engineering. Examples address purification of biomolecules ranging from recombinant proteins to gene therapy products, with footnotes detailing economics of the products.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Genetic Engineering: Principles and Methods presents state-of-the-art discussions in modern genetics and genetic engineering.
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