And Growing Antibiotic Resistivity In Different Diseases Is A Serious Health Problem Pdf 2018
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- Antibiotic resistance: a rundown of a global crisis
- Critical Importance of a One Health Approach to Antimicrobial Resistance
- Antibiotic resistance: What you need to know
A hoax e-mail on cancer has been circulating on the internet. One area in which consensus does not yet exist is the use of placebo groups in vitamin supplementation studies. Therefore the antimicrobial stewardship program ASP was developed to ensure the proper use of antibiotics, reduce overutilization of antimicrobial agents, and halt the development of resistance ,. Murphy Raymond, Smalzer William. Discuss the literature pertaining to the duration of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated gram - negative bloodstream infections.
Antibiotic resistance: a rundown of a global crisis
Antibiotic resistance is the most challenging clinical and public health problem. Despite of living in the era of novel technologies in biomedical research, many of untreatable infectious diseases are ranked as the main causes of human death worldwide. Increased antibiotic use in human and use in animal production are the two major causes of emergence of resistant bacteria in hospitals, human communities, and also animal farms.
Current body of evidences is indicating that major factors that led to existing crisis on antibiotics worldwide are poor educational programs on hygiene and health, inappropriate prescription in addition to the overprescription in clinical settings mainly in developing countries with easier access to the antibiotics and lack of accurate diagnostic tools in laboratories in order to control the emergence of antibiotics against widely used drugs in community.
It sounds using the antibodies against problematic bacteria in farms has more benefits than treating them with susceptible antibiotics. As best strategy, we pointed that the crisis of antibiotic resistance may be solved when all contributors be acknowledged to their responsibilities and duties to minimize this global problem threatening the human health. China and the USA as the two main antibiotics user in industrial scale should have taken new policy in meat industry.
Currently, antibiotic resistance presents a growing health threat worldwide being the cause of many nosocomial and often deadly infections. His life-saving finding increased life expectancy of populations of developed countries by three decades [ 1 , 2 ]. Life expectancy increase of Third World countries was also significant but more modest.
During his Nobel prize speech, Fleming warned about the possibility of emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, especially if exposed to low doses of antibiotics with marginal efficacy [ 3 ]. Neglect of his warnings resulted in present crisis in fight with infectious diseases since many previously curable infectious diseases became untreatable and are ranked again as main causes of human mortality and morbidity [ 4 ].
Cephalosporins, penicillins, aminoglycodides, tetracycline, and glycopeptides were added to prescriptions. In the end, over ten thousands of bacterial secondary metabolites were found to successfully eradicate persistent infectious diseases [ 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ].
These antibiotics and bacterial metabolites were also overused as prophylactic protective measures against any potential bacterial infections [ 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ]. Antibiotic resistance AR played a major role in the reduction of efficacy of fight against the infectious agents [ 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 ].
From a microbiological point of view when exposed to antibiotics, propagation of bacterial resistant phenotypes follows mechanisms of evolutionary selection [ 23 , 24 ]. It is known that cardiovascular diseases are the first cause of death in many of countries. However; untreatable infectious diseases are still the second in the ranking of deadly diseases in developing countries [ 25 ].
Excessive use of antibiotics and poor systems of control of infections and prevention often caused by substandard or evken sloppy hygienic practices are the two major contributors to the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria in hospitals and communities. Around 4. Antibiotic resistance is rapidly increasing at national and international levels, while only few available solutions exist [ 27 , 28 ].
Hence, it is important to reconsider antibiotic usages. Thus, in the following sections:. Second, practical approaches tackling with the speedy globalization of antibiotics resistance will be discussed in the light of the recent World Health Organization WHO report.
Antibiotic resistance has reached global dimensions as a public health major threat. However, in the last decade, there has been little if none systematic coordination of prevention campaigns. The WHO published its first and the only available surveillance data couple of years ago [ 36 ].
It was the most comprehensive report on antibiotic resistance on a global scale. It addressed correctly the importance of using surveillance data since they show the drift of antibiotic resistances and allows to design alternative and effective therapies, particularly for multidrug-resistant strains [ 36 ].
What the world of microbiology forgot is that having a comprehensive and global surveillance system can slow down the speed of the antibiotic failure.
The main obstacle in creating a global surveillance survey is the lack of universal agreement on its methodology. So far, there are only two studies examining the cost of antibiotic resistance for humanity.
First, a European report in , recording 25, death cases due to the drug-resistant infections with Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia , and Streptococcus pneumoniae [ 37 ].
Second analysis came from the USA, reporting death rates of infected people with multidrug-resistant isolates of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi [ 38 ]. In the light of what we know, it is very disturbing that Kelly et al. The current grim situation should stimulate to adopt efficient strategies and policies to protect existing antibiotics against their absolescence due to emergence of bacterial resistances.
The first step is to accept the existence of an ongoing crisis of antibiotics use worldwide. In this regard, the WHO report is a good starting point for microbiologists and clinicians to design better strategies to overcome the crisis. They classified these microorganisms into three groups critical, high, and medium according to the urgency of a need to develop new antibiotic treatment and the levels of reported antibiotic resistances.
Only microorganisms with critical priority Acinetobacter baumannii , carbapenem-resistant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , carbapenem-resistant and Enterobacteriaceae , carbapenem-resistant are described on the basis of recent update of their antibiotic resistance profiles.
Furthermore, this text aims to propose novel approaches to resolve the current crisis caused by the drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Acinetobacter baumannii A. This Gram-negative microorganism got onto a top of community-acquired infections list over the last decade [ 43 ]. Usually, the bacteria with high virulence are labeled as emerging pathogens, but in the case of A. Generally speaking, A. However, large amount of data failed to find the lineage origin for the clonal infections.
The A. Thereafter, genetic comparison of a couple of sequenced strains revealed a high similarity in the content of plasticity regions, which contains resistance genes. This finding fits well with a microbiological concept that A. In clinical settings, A. It is clear that A. Unlike other pathogens, A.
Indeed, this resilient bacterium is able to acquire and maintain genetic elements responsible for phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistances. Moreover, there is no exact definition of multidrug resistance MDR or extensive drug resistance XDR for any microorganisms Mycobacterium tuberculosis excluded , especially for highly resistant ones [ 52 , 53 ].
Pan-drug definition appears to be suitable for A. However, the lack of an uniform definition leads to some arbitrary interpretations of resistance, which is one of the main reasons for inconsistency of the results of parallel studies [ 54 , 55 ].
Many of the clinical and environmental isolates of A. From that time, carbapenem-resistant A. Due to the alarming frequency of MDR, the infections caused by bacteria with acquired and intrinsic mechanisms , including A.
Recent reports showed A. From a clinical perspective, the fact that A. Undoubtedly, MDR strains are causing many lethal outbreaks in hospitals worldwide [ 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 ].
Occurrence of antibiotic resistance of A. Recent reports indicate that the antibiotic resistances of A. A common list of proposed antibiotics against A. However, MDR A. In some reports, colistin was suggested as an alternative medication [ 79 , 80 ].
For a while, colistin was the only available efficient antibiotic used against A. The emergence of colistin resistance eliminated all options of therapy against MDR- A. This is the main reason why WHO labeled A. Clinically, carbapenems have shown the best therapeutic results in treating an MDR- A. A routine therapy of A. In the case of carbapenem-resistant A. Currently, carbapenem-resistant A.
It is likely that the current problems with carbapenem-resistant A. Based on the WHO report, we must classify infections with carbapenem-resistant A. According to the local susceptibility tests, the some hopes are raised by a combination therapy with colistin and the remaining effective antibiotics. Primarily, colistin was used to treat an MDR- A. It should be highlighted that the use of colistin was prohibited in s, because of its secondary effects—nephrotoxicity [ 89 , 90 ].
Interestingly, the first report of emergence of a resistant A. Since all other antibiotics were inefficient against an MDR- A. An increased number of reported MDR- A. Additionally, a combination of drugs colistin and tigecycline might be an alternative way of treating patients carrying MDR and XDR- A.
A worrying number of reported cases of colistin resistance worldwide require case-controlled and randomized clinical trials RCT before its new combination with sulbactam or other drugs can be introduced as therapeutic treatments.
Noteworthy, colistin is also used in therapies against the two major Gram-negative microorganisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae after failure of traditional therapies [ 95 , 96 ]. In other words, an increasing number of multidrug-resistant infections caused by MDR and XDR bacteria boosted the prescriptions and the uses of colistin in clinical settings.
However, in order to avoid the emergence of resistances, there is need for a strict management of a colistin administration in private clinics and hospitals.
The Gram-negative and nonfermenting bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa P. Reviews on microorganisms causing nosocomial infections list P.
Experimental data show that P. Two major features of P. There is a long list of ineffective antibiotics against this persistent pathogen, particularly pronounced in the clinical settings. Because of an increased spread of carbapenem-resistant P. After having discussed the main reasons why carbapenem-resistant P. Both intrinsic and acquired adaptive mechanisms made it phenotypically and genetically resistant to most currently prescribed antibiotics. Several classes of antibiotics are routinely used to treat P.
Currently, piperacillin is the only effective antibiotic against P. The mechanisms of resistance against antibiotics of P.
Critical Importance of a One Health Approach to Antimicrobial Resistance
For the last 70 years, doctors have prescribed drugs known as antimicrobial agents to treat infectious diseases. These are diseases that occur due to microbes, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Some of these diseases can be life-threatening. However, the use of these drugs is now so common that some microbes have adapted and started to resist them. This is potentially dangerous because it could result in a lack of effective treatments for some diseases. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC , at least 2 million people become infected with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in the United States every year.
For the last 70 years, doctors have prescribed drugs known as antimicrobial agents to treat infectious diseases. These are diseases that occur due to microbes, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Some of these diseases can be life-threatening. However, the use of these drugs is now so common that some microbes have adapted and started to resist them. This is potentially dangerous because it could result in a lack of effective treatments for some diseases.
Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi and to treat and increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness and death. the need for more expensive medicines and financial challenges for those impacted. As a result of drug resistance, antibiotics and other antimicrobial.
Antibiotic resistance: What you need to know
Antibiotic resistance is the most challenging clinical and public health problem. Despite of living in the era of novel technologies in biomedical research, many of untreatable infectious diseases are ranked as the main causes of human death worldwide. Increased antibiotic use in human and use in animal production are the two major causes of emergence of resistant bacteria in hospitals, human communities, and also animal farms. Current body of evidences is indicating that major factors that led to existing crisis on antibiotics worldwide are poor educational programs on hygiene and health, inappropriate prescription in addition to the overprescription in clinical settings mainly in developing countries with easier access to the antibiotics and lack of accurate diagnostic tools in laboratories in order to control the emergence of antibiotics against widely used drugs in community. It sounds using the antibodies against problematic bacteria in farms has more benefits than treating them with susceptible antibiotics.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common encapsulated , Gram-negative , rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans. The organism is considered opportunistic insofar as serious infection often occurs during existing diseases or conditions — most notably cystic fibrosis and traumatic burns. It generally affects the immunocompromised but can also infect the immunocompetent as in hot tub folliculitis. Treatment of P. When more advanced antibiotic drug regimens are needed adverse effects may result. It is citrate , catalase , and oxidase positive. It is found in soil, water, skin flora , and most man-made environments throughout the world.
Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Canberra Hospital, Garran, ACT such colistin, tetracyclines and macrolides, for growth promotion. Numerous countries and several international agencies have now Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health problem [1,2]. Most bacteria that cause serious.
Antimicrobial resistance AMR is a complex, multifaceted problem that threatens human and animal health, the global economy, and national and global security. Worldwide, AMR is increasing Klein et al. Two recent examples highlight the threat of emergence and rapid geographic dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. The NDM-1 gene was subsequently detected in surface and tap water samples in India in and in the environment in Bangladesh, indicating the potential for environmental origin and worldwide spread of this gene and its variants Walsh et al.