The Trophoblast And The Origins Of Cancer Pdf

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the trophoblast and the origins of cancer pdf

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What Is Gestational Trophoblastic Disease?

John Beard, the British embryologist and histologist, first proposed his trophoblast model of cancer in The model has subsequently been expanded by Kelley, and in current times, Gonzalez and Isaacs. The trophoblast model of cancer can be stated as a specified, scientifically testable model, including its core predictions that 1 adult stem cells are ectopic trophoblasts that have migrated to other tissues early in embryogenesis; 2 pancreatic enzymes are the key signal that converts the trophoblast into the stable placenta; 3 cancer arises from trophoblasts that have escaped regulatory control; and 4 pancreatic enzymes can be used to treat cancer. The author reviewed the literature on the trophoblast model of cancer and the use of pancreatic enzymes for the treatment of cancer and organized its key tenets into a set of specified scientific hypotheses. The trophoblast model of cancer can be stated as a set of 11 core predictions and 3 adjunctive or nonessential components. The trophoblast model of cancer is a detailed, testable model that should be investigated within an overlapping set of fields including oncology, histology, physiology, molecular biology, and embryology.

The trophoblast model of cancer

The unique curability of gestational trophoblastic tumors may in part be attributable to a host immunologic response. The occurrence of rapidly progressive and fatal choriocarcinoma may be favored by histocompatibility between patients and their partners. However, histocompatibility is not a prerequisite for the development and persistence of gestational choriocarcinoma. The expression of HLA by choriocarcinomateins in culture is enhanced following incubation with gamma-interferon and this may be of both biologic and clinical significance. Complete molar pregnancy is a complete allograft because all molar chromosomes are of paternal origin.

that cancer cells are very like young undifferentiated trophoblast cells, in appearance and Beard called his theory The Unitarian Trophoblastic Theory of Cancer. whether obtained from a health food store, a pharmacy or an Internet source.

Immunobiology of complete molar pregnancy and gestational trophoblastic tumor

Trophoblast cells of the human placenta proliferate, migrate, and invade the pregnant uterus and its vasculature in order to nourish the developing fetus, in a way that is imitated by malignant tumors. Many similarities exist between embryo implantation and the growth of cancer cells. We begin this article by reviewing decades of studies that have helped unearth the mechanisms that contribute to the tumor-like phenotype of human trophoblast cells. Interestingly, these attributes are only transient in nature, with stringent spatial and temporal confines. We summarize and discuss the significance of abnormalities in these regulatory mechanisms, and finally, speculate about the use of human trophoblastic cells as model systems for the study of a variety of cellular processes.

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Ferretti, L. Bruni, V. Dangles-Marie, A.

Placental site trophoblastic tumor PSTT is a rare type of gestational trophoblastic disease originating from the intermediate trophoblast. Compared with hydatidiform mole, invasive hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma, the diagnosis of PSTT is more complicated and lacks specific and sensitive tumor markers. However, metastasis occasionally occurs and even causes death in a small number of PSTT patients.


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Tumor antigen is an antigenic substance produced in tumor cells , i. Tumor antigens are useful tumor markers in identifying tumor cells with diagnostic tests and are potential candidates for use in cancer therapy. The field of cancer immunology studies such topics. Thus any protein that is not exposed to the immune system triggers an immune response. This may include normal proteins that are well sequestered from the immune system, proteins that are normally produced in extremely small quantities, proteins that are normally produced only in certain stages of development, or proteins whose structure is modified due to mutation. Initially tumor antigens were broadly classified into two categories based on their pattern of expression: Tumor-Specific Antigens TSA , which are present only on tumor cells and not on any other cell and Tumor-Associated Antigens TAA , which are present on some tumor cells and also some normal cells.


  1. Tethloach K. 02.05.2021 at 06:26

    The syncytiotrophoblast is the major component of the human placenta, involved in feto-maternal exchanges and secretion of pregnancy-specific hormones.

  2. Latonya R. 02.05.2021 at 18:29

    Most cases of persistent GTD are invasive moles, but in rare cases they are choriocarcinomas or placental site trophoblastic tumors see below.

  3. Matthew S. 05.05.2021 at 04:42

    Dr. Beard's achievements, though unappreciated in his own day, are many. A research embryologist by training, he proposed that the early mammalian placenta.

  4. Rerofiral 07.05.2021 at 04:51

    The Gonzalez Protocol for the treatment of cancer and its historical origins are described in a series of books and papers [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][.