Astd Handbook Of Training Design And Delivery Pdf
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- The ASTD Handbook of Training Design and Delivery
- Instructional Design Models
- The ASTD Handbook of Training Design and Delivery
ASTD workplace learning and development. The ASTD training and development handbook : a guide. The standard reference in the field--now more timely than ever! Sponsored by the American. We started by identifying a list of everything you ever wanted to know about training, development, and workplace learning and performance.
The ASTD Handbook of Training Design and Delivery
Researchers and practitioners have spent the past 50 years attempting to define and create models of design with the intent to improve instruction.
As part of a joint, inter-university project, Barson defined instructional development as the systematic process for improving instruction. Perhaps most interesting about this project and subsequent report is the caution that many different conditions influence learning, including the use of media, and that generalizing any sort of model would potentially be hazardous at best and disastrous at worst. Shortly thereafter, however, Twelker, Urbach, and Buck noted that a systematic approach to developing instruction was an increasingly popular idea, but cautioned that instructional design ID methods varied from simple to complex.
These historical observations predicted the reality that every instructional design project is unique every time with no two projects ever progressing through the process identically. These differences, sometimes subtle while at other times significant, have given way to literally dozens of different models used with varying popularity in a wide variety of learning contexts.
The book provides brief overviews of instructional design models, classifying them within the context of classroom product- and process-oriented instructional problems. The Surveys book provides a concise summary to help beginning instructional designers visualize the different design approaches as well as assist more advanced instructional designers. However, this text is just one of many often used in the study and practice of instructional design, and those seeking to expand their knowledge of design process can learn much from the rich history and theoretical development over decades in our field.
See Resources section for suggestions. In this chapter, we explore a brief history of instructional design models, common components of models, commonly referenced models, and resources and advice for instructional designers as they engage in the instructional design process.
Reiser noted that training programs during World War II sparked the efforts to identify efficient, systematic approaches to learning and instructional design. In turn, Molenda noted that the standardization of processes and terminology triggered interest in the field. Thus, an interesting relationship exists between defining the field of instructional design and perpetuating its existence.
As designers seek to justify their role in education—whether K, higher education, or industry—they often refer to existing models or generate a new model to fit their context.
This dichotomous view situates the perceived ongoing debate between the theory of instructional design and its practice and application. On one hand, scholars and faculty in higher education often continue to research and practice based upon historical foundations. On the other hand, scholars and practitioners in industry often eschew the traditional literature, favoring instead more business-oriented practices.
New professionals entering the field, should be aware of this tension and how they may help mitigate potential pitfalls from focusing either too much on foundational theory or too much on practitioner wisdom. Both are essential to understanding how to design instruction for any given audience.
Notice the use of the phrase process rather than model. For instructional design purposes, a process is defined as a series of steps necessary to reach an end result. Similarly, a model is defined as a specific instance of a process that can be imitated or emulated. In other words, a model seeks to personalize the generic into distinct functions for a specific context.
Thus, when discussing the instructional design process, we often refer to ADDIE as the overarching paradigm or framework by which we can explain individual models.
Consider the following examples. The Plan, Implement, Evaluate PIE model from Newby, Stepich, Lehman, and Russell encourages an emphasis on considering how technology assists with instructional design, focusing on the what, when, why, and how.
This phase produces an artifact or plan that is then put into action during implementation followed by evaluating both learner performance and instruction effectiveness. During planning, designers work through a series of questions related to the teacher, learner, and technology resources.
The questions are answered while also taking into consideration the implementation and evaluation components of the instructional problem. When considered through the lens of the ADDIE process, PIE combines the analyzing, designing, and developing phases into a singular focus area, which is somewhat illustrated by the depiction in Figure 3.
See Figure 4 for a depiction of the model. Diamond placed an emphasis on the second phase of the model by prescribing an in-depth, parallel development system to write objectives, design evaluation instruments, select instructional strategies, and evaluate existing resources. Then, as new resources are produced, they are done so with consideration to the previously designed evaluation instruments. The evaluation is again consulted during the implementation, summative evaluation, and revision of the instructional system.
These two examples help demonstrate what is meant by ADDIE being the general process and models being specific applications. This discussion might also be facilitated with a business example. Consider the concept of process mapping; it helps organizations assess operational procedures as they are currently practiced Hunt, Mapping the process analytically to identify the steps carried out in practice leads to process modeling, an exercise in optimization.
In other words, modeling helps move processes to a desired state tailored to the unique needs of an organization. Many businesses of a similar type find that they have similar processes. However, through process modeling, their processes are customized to meet their needs. The relationship between ADDIE and instructional design models functions much like this business world scenario.
However, through modeling, we customize the process to meet the needs of our instructional context and of our learners, stakeholders, resources, and modes of delivery. Models assist us in selecting or developing appropriate operational tools and techniques as we design.
Finally, models serve as a source of research questions as we seek to develop a comprehensive theory of instructional development. Rarely are these models tested through rigorous assessment of their results against predetermined criteria. Thus, popularity serves as a form of validation for these design models, but a wise instructional designer knows when to use, adapt, or create a new model of instructional design to fit their purposes.
Because there are so many different ID models, how do we choose which one to use? A total of 34 different instructional design models see Table 1 for a summary have been covered in the Survey text since its first edition, and this list does not include every model.
Still, this list of models is useful in providing a concise guide to some of the more common approaches to instructional design. When considering the models featured in Table 1, determining which one to use might best be decided by taking into account a few factors. First, what is the anticipated delivery format? Will the instruction be synchronous online, synchronous face to face, asynchronous online, or some combination of these formats?
Another way to think about how to select a model involves accounting for the context or anticipated output. Is the instruction intended for a classroom? Perhaps the instructional context involves producing an instructional product handed over to another organization or group. In this case, consider Bergman and Moore ; de Hoog et al. Lastly, perhaps your context prescribes developing a system, such as a full-scale curriculum.
Deciding which model to use need not be a cumbersome or overwhelming process. So long as a designer can align components of an instructional problem with the priorities of a particular model, they will likely be met with success through the systematic process. When OKT was initially introduced, online or web-based instructional design had not yet become part of the conversation. Yet, his model astutely factors in the technology component not yet commonly seen in other ID models referenced at the time.
Notice how the OKT process calls for a close relationship between implementation and the other phases as well as alignment between evaluation and the other phases. This design facilitates internal consistency in decision making. The intent here was to ensure that design decisions relating to technology-based resources were consistently applied across the instructional problem.
At their core, instructional design models seek to help designers overcome gaps in what is learned due to either instruction, motivation, or resources. Thus, some models seek to address non-instructional gaps, like motivation. Other models examine strategies related to resources, like technology or media integration.
And still other models consider other gaps and needs like rapid development. Recently, many instructional designers have emphasized the design gaps in ID, drawing upon the broader field of design theory to guide how designers select and arrange constructs or components.
One model, known as Design Layers Gibbons, , helps designers prioritize concerns encountered during the ID process and may overlay with an existing or adapted ID model being followed. In other words, a designer may use design layers to organize the problems to be addressed, but still use other models based on ADDIE processes to solve some of these problems. The primary takeaway from this entire discussion should be that ID is rarely a simple process. In practice, designers often draw upon personal experience and the wide variety of models, strategies, and theories to customize each instance of instructional design.
While working on this chapter, I thought it might be interesting to crowdsource advice and tips. We live, research, and teach in the age of social constructivism. So, why not apply the theory in a way that might have a far reaching and lasting impact? The following short quotes about the practice of ID and ID models from scholars, students, and above all practitioners provide focused advice that are good tips for the beginning designer and great reminders for the more advanced designer.
Allen, I. Changing course: Ten years of tracking online education in the United States. Babson Park, MA. Allen Interaction. Agile elearning development with SAM. ATD Research. Skills, challenges, and trends in instructional design.
Alexandria, VA. Baker, R. Instructional product development. Banathy, B. Instructional systems. Belmont, CA: Fearon Publishers. Barson, J. Instructional systems development: A demonstration and evaluation project: Final report.
East Lansing, MI. Bates, A. Technology, open learning and distance education. New York, NY: Routledge. Beck, K.
Instructional Design Models
The ASTD Handbook of Training Design and Delivery
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