Advantages And Disadvantages Of A Case Study Research Design Pdf
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Because of its strengths, case study is a particularly appealing design for applied fields of study such as education, social work, administration, health, and so on. An applied field's processes, problems, and programs can be examined to bring about understanding that in turn can affect and perhaps even improve practice. Case study has proven particularly useful for studying educational innovations, evaluating programs, and informing policy.
- Strengths and Limitations of Case Studies
- Mini cases vs. Full length case studies : advantages and disadvantages
- Case Study Method
- The Advantages and Limitations of Single Case Study Analysis
Observational studies allow researchers to document behavior in a natural setting and witness events that could not be produced in a lab. Give examples of when observational studies would be advantageous, and when they would have limitations. Observation allows researchers to experience a specific aspect of social life and get a firsthand look at a trend, institution, or behavior. Often researchers in observational studies will try to blend in seamlessly with the sample group to avoid compromising the results of their observations. Instead, the participants are simply observed in a natural setting, defined as a place in which behavior ordinarily occurs, rather than a place that has been arranged specifically for the purpose of observing the behavior.
Strengths and Limitations of Case Studies
Observational studies allow researchers to document behavior in a natural setting and witness events that could not be produced in a lab. Give examples of when observational studies would be advantageous, and when they would have limitations. Observation allows researchers to experience a specific aspect of social life and get a firsthand look at a trend, institution, or behavior.
Often researchers in observational studies will try to blend in seamlessly with the sample group to avoid compromising the results of their observations. Instead, the participants are simply observed in a natural setting, defined as a place in which behavior ordinarily occurs, rather than a place that has been arranged specifically for the purpose of observing the behavior. Unlike correlational and experimental research which use quantitative data, observational studies tend to use qualitative data.
For example, social psychologists Roger Barker and Herbert Wright studied how a sample of children interacted with their daily environments. They observed the children go to school, play with friends, and complete daily chores, and learned a great deal about how children interact with their environments and how their environments shape their character.
Similarly, anthropologist Jane Goodall studied the behavior of chimpanzees, taking careful notes on their tool making, family relationships, hunting, and social behavior. Her early work served as the basis for future research on chimpanzees and animal behavior in general. By observing events as they naturally occur, patterns in behavior will emerge and general questions will become more specific. The hypotheses that result from these observations will guide the researcher in shaping data into results.
One advantage of this type of research is the ability to make on-the-fly adjustments to the initial purpose of a study. These observations also capture behavior that is more natural than behavior occurring in the artificial setting of a lab and that is relatively free of some of the bias seen in survey responses.
However, the researcher must be careful not to apply his or her own biases to the interpretation. Researchers may also use this type of data to verify external validity, allowing them to examine whether study findings generalize to real world scenarios.
Laboratory Observation : Laboratory observation can feel artificial to participants and influence their behavior. Observation in a natural setting allows researchers to document behavior without this influence. There are some areas of study where observational studies are more advantageous than others. This type of research allows for the study of phenomena that may be unethical to control for in a lab, such as verbal abuse between romantic partners. Observation is also particularly advantageous as a cross-cultural reference.
By observing people from different cultures in the same setting, it is possible to gain information on cultural differences. While observational studies can generate rich qualitative data, they do not produce quantitative data, and thus mathematical analysis is limited. Researchers also cannot infer causal statements about the situations they observe, meaning that cause and effect cannot be determined.
Behavior seen in these studies can only be described, not explained. There are also ethical concerns related to observing individuals without their consent. One way to avoid this problem is to debrief participants after observing them and to ask for their consent at that time. However, this tactic does have its drawbacks.
When subjects know they are being watched, they may alter their behavior in an attempt to make themselves look more admirable. This type of research can also be very time consuming. Some studies require dozens of observation sessions lasting for several hours and sometimes involving several researchers. Without the use of multiple researchers, the chances of observer bias increase; because behavior is perceived so subjectively, it is possible that two observers will notice different things or draw different conclusions from the same behavior.
A case study is a method of obtaining in-depth information on a person, group or phenomenon to provide descriptions of specific or rare cases. A case study in psychology is a descriptive research approach used to obtain in-depth information about a person, group, or phenomenon. It is different from survey research, which involves asking a group of participants questions through interviews or questionnaires.
Cast studies also tend to be far more in-depth than observational research in that they use multiple measures or records and focus on a single subject. A multiple-case design can be used in some instances. Case studies may be prospective or retrospective; prospective studies feature criteria that are established and include additional cases that meet those criteria as they become available, while retrospective studies use criteria to select cases from historical records.
Case studies also tend to use qualitative data, such as interviews, but may occasionally use quantitative data as well, like questionnaires. They are often seen in clinical research, where the treatment of a specific individual is monitored to determine what is effective. Case studies use techniques such as personal interviews, direct observation, psychometric tests, and archival records to gather information. They are used to explore causation in order to find underlying principles.
However, they cannot be generalized to the overall population, as can experimental research, and they cannot provide predictive power, as can correlational research. Rather, they can provide extensive information for the development of new hypotheses for future testing, or about a rare or otherwise hard-to-study event or condition. As such, they are often seen in clinical research, where the treatment of a specific individual is monitored to determine what is effective.
For instance, a client in a mental health hospital could be studied as he progresses through a course of treatment involving individual counseling, group therapy and medication. While any results from the study could only be applied to that particular client, the results could inform a future hypothesis about the relative effectiveness of such treatment options. One major advantage of the case study in psychology is the potential for the development of novel hypotheses for later testing.
Case studies are used to explore ideas on a subject and can determine underlying principles. Picking and choosing data like this is impossible in experimental studies. This method can also provide incredibly detailed descriptions of specific and rare or otherwise hard-to-study cases. With rare events, such as specific injuries to the brain or sociopathic behavior, a case study allows for a detailed analysis of the behaviors and situations related to these events which could not be recorded ordinarily.
Lastly, this type of research also allows for the observation of phenomenon in real-life situations. A researcher cannot draw cause and effect relationships from case studies. Even though a case study may indicate that a specific circumstance is associated with a particular trait or situation, it does not mean that all cases relate to those same factors.
Case studies also cannot test hypotheses. While they can gather information to inform hypotheses, they cannot support or refute a prediction. Case studies cannot be generalized to the overall population, as in experimental research, nor can they provide predictive power, as in correlational research. The observations made in a case study are based on a very limited sample, and since this sample is not randomized or typically very large, the findings cannot be extrapolated to apply to broader contexts.
Surveys are a low-cost option for gathering a large amount of data, but they are also susceptible to reporting bias. Interviews are a type of qualitative data in which the researcher asks questions to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee.
Interviews used for research can take several forms:. The survey method of data collection is a type of descriptive research, and is likely the most common of the major methods.
Similar to an interview, a survey may use close-ended questions, open-ended questions, or a combination of the two. Multiple choice, check all that apply, and ratings scale questions are all examples of closed-ended questions. Surveys are a highly versatile tool in psychology. For example, a researcher may assign one group of individuals to an experimental condition in which they are asked to focus on all the negative aspects of their week to induce a negative mood, while he assigns another group of people to a control group in which they read a book chapter.
After the mood induction, he has both groups fill out a survey about their current emotions. The benefits of this method include its low cost and its large sample size. Surveys are an efficient way of collecting information from a large sample and are easy to administer compared with an experiment.
Surveys are also an excellent way to measure a wide variety of unobservable data, such as stated preferences, traits, beliefs, behaviors, and factual information. It is also relatively simple to use statistical techniques to determine validity, reliability, and statistical significance. Surveys are flexible in the sense that a wide range of information can be collected. Since surveys are a standardized measure, they are relatively free from several types of errors.
Only questions of interest to the researcher are asked, codified, and analyzed. Survey research is also a very affordable option for gathering a large amount of data. If a participant expects that one answer is more socially acceptable than another, he may be more motivated to report the more acceptable answer than an honest one. When designing a survey, a researcher must be wary of the wording, format, and sequencing of the questions, all of which can influence how a participant will respond.
In particular, a researcher should be concerned with the reliability of their survey. A survey is said to have high reliability if it produces similar results each time. For example, a reliable measure of emotion is one that measures emotion the same way each time it is used. However, for a survey to be useful, it needs to be not only reliable, but valid. It is important to note that a survey can be reliable, but not valid and vice versa.
For example, just because our emotion survey is reliable, and provides us with consistent results each time we administer it, does not necessarily mean it is measuring the aspects of emotion we want it to. In this case, our emotion survey is reliable, but not necessarily valid. Structured surveys, particularly those with closed-ended questions, may have low validity when researching affective variables.
Survey samples tend to be self-selected since the the respondents must choose to complete the survey. Surveys are not appropriate for studying complex social phenomena since they do not give a full sense of these processes. While survey research is one of the most common types of psychological study, it can be difficult to create a survey that is free of bias and that reliably measures the factors it aims to capture. A researcher must have a strong understanding of the basics before they can create a valid survey from scratch.
Surveys must be carefully worded and include appropriate response formats. The way a question is written can confuse a participant or bias their response, and poorly framed or ambiguous questions will likely result in meaningless responses with very little value. Questions should be clear, address only one topic at a time, and avoid leading the respondent to a specific answer in other words, a question should not suggest the correct response in how it is worded.
When designing a survey, it is important to understand your audience and use words they will understand and make sure your survey is not too long for them to easily complete.
Survey research books : While survey research is one of the most common types of psychological study, it can be difficult to create a survey that is free of bias and that reliably measures the factors it aims to capture. Surveys may measure either qualitative or quantitative data.
Qualitative data are the result of categorizing or describing attributes of a population such as hair color, blood type, or ethnic group. Qualitative data are usually described by words or letters. This type of data does not lend itself to mathematical analysis, but bar graphs and pie charts tend to demonstrate this type of data well.
Mini cases vs. Full length case studies : advantages and disadvantages
By Dr. Saul McLeod , updated Case studies are in-depth investigations of a single person, group, event or community. Typically, data are gathered from a variety of sources and by using several different methods e. The case study research method originated in clinical medicine the case history, i.
How do we start an argumentative essay, essay topics on animals of study pdf case design disadvantages research and Advantages texas … Morgan, T. Benefits and Advantages of Research Design. Academic voice is usually written in the third person he, she, it , also not first person I, we or second person you. Apr 23, Apr 23, by Editor in Chief. Wisdom finds truth essay upsc pdf Innovation and emerging technologies case study. In what other research might these methods apply? Introduction Qualitative and quantitative research approaches and methods are usually found to be utilised rather frequently in different disciplines of education such as sociology, psychology, history, and so on.
It also explores on the advantages and disadvantages of case study as a research method. ResearchGate Logo. Discover the world's research.
Case Study Method
Using selected examples from within the International Relations literature, this paper aims to provide a brief overview of the main principles and distinctive advantages and limitations of single case study analysis. Divided into three inter-related sections, the paper therefore begins by first identifying the underlying principles that serve to constitute the case study as a particular research strategy, noting the somewhat contested nature of the approach in ontological, epistemological, and methodological terms. The final section of the paper then discusses the most commonly articulated limitations of single case studies; while accepting their susceptibility to criticism, it is however suggested that such weaknesses are somewhat exaggerated. The paper concludes that single case study analysis has a great deal to offer as a means of both understanding and explaining contemporary international relations. It is possible, however, to distil some of the more commonly-agreed principles.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Corpus ID: Mini cases vs. Karlsson Published Computer Science.
There should be no doubt that with case studies what you gain in depth you lose in breadth — this is the unavoidable compromise that needs to be understood from the beginning of the research process. Reference: Hodkinson, P. Hodkinson The strengths and limitations of case study research. Mark is an active researcher in the fields of education and public policy.
The Advantages and Limitations of Single Case Study Analysis
Reading different blogs it has come to my attention that case studies are getting quite a bad reputation. They are being deemed non-scientific and of questionable usefulness. In this blog I will look at both sides of the argument for case studies and see whether as a design it is still useful for the field of psychology.
A case study is an investigation into an individual circumstance. The investigation may be of a single person, business, event, or group. The investigation involves collecting in-depth data about the individual entity through the use of several collection methods. Interviews and observation are two of the most common forms of data collection used. The case study method was originally developed in the field of clinical medicine. It has expanded since to other industries to examine key results, either positive or negative, that were received through a specific set of decisions. This allows for the topic to be researched with great detail, allowing others to glean knowledge from the information presented.
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