Dictionary Of Gnosis And Western Esotericism Pdf

  • and pdf
  • Thursday, April 15, 2021 2:49:10 PM
  • 0 comment
dictionary of gnosis and western esotericism pdf

File Name: dictionary of gnosis and western esotericism .zip
Size: 29987Kb
Published: 15.04.2021

Western esotericism , also known as esotericism , esoterism , and sometimes the Western mystery tradition , [1] is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society. These ideas and currents are united by the fact that they are largely distinct both from orthodox Judeo-Christian religion and from Enlightenment rationalism. Esotericism has pervaded various forms of Western philosophy , religion , pseudoscience , art , literature , and music , continuing to affect intellectual ideas and popular culture.

Esotericism and Psychology

Western esotericism , also known as esotericism , esoterism , and sometimes the Western mystery tradition , [1] is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society. These ideas and currents are united by the fact that they are largely distinct both from orthodox Judeo-Christian religion and from Enlightenment rationalism. Esotericism has pervaded various forms of Western philosophy , religion , pseudoscience , art , literature , and music , continuing to affect intellectual ideas and popular culture.

The idea of grouping a wide range of Western traditions and philosophies together under the category that is now termed esotericism developed in Europe during the late seventeenth century. Various academics have debated how to define Western esotericism, with a number of different options proposed. One scholarly model adopts its definition of "esotericism" from certain esotericist schools of thought themselves, treating "esotericism" as a perennialist hidden, inner tradition.

A second perspective sees esotericism as a category that encompasses movements which embrace an "enchanted" world-view in the face of increasing disenchantment. A third views Western esotericism as a category encompassing all of Western culture's "rejected knowledge" that is accepted neither by the scientific establishment nor by orthodox religious authorities.

The earliest traditions which later analysis would label as forms of Western esotericism emerged in the Eastern Mediterranean during Late Antiquity , where Hermeticism , Gnosticism , and Neoplatonism developed as schools of thought distinct from what became mainstream Christianity. The seventeenth century saw the development of initiatory societies professing esoteric knowledge such as Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry , while the Age of Enlightenment of the eighteenth century led to the development of new forms of esoteric thought.

The nineteenth century saw the emergence of new trends of esoteric thought that have come to be known as occultism. Modern Paganism developed within occultism, and includes religious movements such as Wicca.

Esoteric ideas permeated the counterculture of the s and later cultural tendencies, from which emerged the New Age phenomenon in the s. Although the idea that these varying movements could be categorised together under the rubric of "Western esotericism" developed in the late eighteenth century, these esoteric currents were largely ignored as a subject of academic enquiry.

The academic study of Western esotericism only emerged in the late twentieth-century, pioneered by scholars like Frances Yates and Antoine Faivre. Esoteric ideas have meanwhile also exerted an influence in popular culture , appearing in art, literature, film, and music. The concept of "Western esotericism" represents a modern scholarly construct rather than a pre-existing, self-defined tradition of thought.

A hostile critic of various currents of Western thought that had emerged since the Renaissance —among them Paracelsianism , Weigelianism , and Christian theosophy —in his book he labelled all of these traditions under the category of "Platonic—Hermetic Christianity", portraying them as heretical to what he saw as "true" Christianity. In Europe during the eighteenth century, amid the Age of Enlightenment , these esoteric traditions came to be regularly categorised [ by whom?

Hanegraaff born , rejection of "occult" topics was seen as a "crucial identity marker" for any intellectuals seeking to affiliate themselves with the academy. Scholars established this category in the late 18th century after identifying "structural similarities" between "the ideas and world views of a wide variety of thinkers and movements" which prior to this had not been placed in the same analytical grouping.

Hanegraaff, the term provided a "useful generic label" for "a large and complicated group of historical phenomena that had long been perceived as sharing an air de famille. Various academics have emphasised the idea that esotericism is a phenomenon unique to the Western world ; as Faivre stated, an "empirical perspective" would hold that "esotericism is a Western notion". The historian of esotericism Antoine Faivre noted that "never a precise term, [esotericism] has begun to overflow its boundaries on all sides", [27] with both Faivre and Karen-Claire Voss stating that Western esotericism consists of "a vast spectrum of authors, trends, works of philosophy, religion, art, literature, and music".

A definition adopted by some scholars has used "Western esotericism" in reference to "inner traditions" which are concerned with a "universal spiritual dimension of reality, as opposed to the merely external 'exoteric' religious institutions and dogmatic systems of established religions.

Waite , who sought to combine their own mystical beliefs with a historical interpretation of esotericism. This definition—originally developed by esotericists themselves—became popular among French academics during the s, exerting a strong influence over the scholars Mircea Eliade , Henry Corbin , and the early work of Faivre. There are various problems with this model for understanding Western esotericism. He noted that, even if such a true and absolute nature of reality really existed, it would only be accessible through "esoteric" spiritual practices, and could not be discovered or measured by the "exoteric" tools of scientific and scholarly enquiry.

Another approach to Western esotericism has treated it as a world view that embraces "enchantment" in contrast to world views influenced by post- Cartesian , post- Newtonian , and positivist science which have sought to " dis-enchant " the world. An early exponent of this definition was the historian of Renaissance thought Frances Yates in her discussions of a "Hermetic Tradition", which she saw as an "enchanted" alternative to established religion and rationalistic science.

Faivre's form of categorisation has been endorsed by scholars like Goodrick-Clarke, [52] and by Bogdan could note that Faivre's had become "the standard definition" of Western esotericism in use among scholars. As an alternative to Faivre's framework, Kocku von Stuckrad developed his own variant, although argued that this did not represent a "definition" but rather "a framework of analysis" for scholarly usage. An additional definition was proposed by Hanegraaff, and holds that "Western esotericism" is a category representing "the academy's dustbin of rejected knowledge.

Goodrick-Clarke was critical of this approach, believing that it relegated Western esotericism to the position of "a casualty of positivist and materialist perspectives in the nineteenth-century" and thus reinforces the idea that Western esoteric traditions were of little historical importance. The origins of Western esotericism are in the Hellenistic Eastern Mediterranean, then part of the Roman Empire , during Late Antiquity , a period encompassing the first centuries of the Common Era.

One component of this was Hermetism , an Egyptian Hellenistic school of thought that takes its name from the legendary Egyptian wise man, Hermes Trismegistus. Another tradition of esoteric thought in Late Antiquity was Gnosticism , which had a complex relationship with Christianity. Various Gnostic sects existed, and they broadly believed that the divine light had been imprisoned within the material world by a malevolent entity known as the Demiurge , who was served by demonic helpers, the Archons.

It was the Gnostic belief that humans, who were imbued with the divine light, should seek to attain gnosis and thus escape from the world of matter and rejoin the divine source. A third form of esotericism in Late Antiquity was Neoplatonism , a school of thought influenced by the ideas of the philosopher Plato. Advocated by such figures as Plotinus , Porphyry , Iamblichus , and Proclus , Neoplatonism held that the human soul had fallen from its divine origins into the material world, but that it could progress, through a number of hierarchical spheres of being, to return to its divine origins once more.

Scholars are still unsure of precisely what theurgy involved, although it is known that it involved a practice designed to make gods appear, who could then raise the theurgist's mind to the reality of the divine. After the fall of Rome , alchemy [75] and philosophy and other aspects of the tradition were largely preserved in the Arab and Near Eastern world and reintroduced into Western Europe by Jews [76] and by the cultural contact between Christians and Muslims in Sicily and southern Italy.

The 12th century saw the development of the Kabbalah in southern Italy and medieval Spain. The medieval period also saw the publication of grimoires , which offered often elaborate formulas for theurgy and thaumaturgy. Many of the grimoires seem to have kabbalistic influence. Figures in alchemy from this period seem to also have authored or used grimoires.

During the Renaissance , a number of European thinkers began to synthesize " pagan " that is, not Christian philosophies, which were then being made available through Arabic translations, with Christian thought and the Jewish kabbalah. Plethon's ideas interested the ruler of Florence, Cosimo de Medici , who employed Florentine thinker Marsilio Ficino — to translate Plato's works into Latin.

Ficino went on to translate and publish the works of various Platonic figures, arguing that their philosophies were compatible with Christianity, and allowing for the emergence of a wider movement in Renaissance Platonism, or Platonic Orientalism.

Another core figure in this intellectual milieu was Giovanni Pico della Mirandola — , who achieved notability in by inviting scholars from across Europe to come and debate with him theses that he had written.

Pico della Mirandola argued that all of these philosophies reflected a grand universal wisdom. Pico della Mirandola's increased interest in Jewish kabbalah led to his development of a distinct form of Christian Kabbalah. His work was built on by the German Johannes Reuchlin — who authored a prominent text on the subject, De Arte Cabbalistica.

Copernicus' theories were adopted into esoteric strains of thought by Giordano Bruno — , whose ideas would be deemed heresy by the Roman Catholic Church , eventually resulting in his public execution.

A distinct strain of esoteric thought developed in Germany, where it came to be known as Naturphilosophie ; although influenced by traditions from Late Antiquity and Medieval Kabbalah, it only acknowledged two main sources of authority: Biblical scripture and the natural world. Instead, Paracelsus urged doctors to learn medicine through an observation of the natural world, although in later work he also began to focus on overtly religious questions.

His work would gain significant support in both areas over the following centuries. From to , the three Rosicrucian Manifestos were published in Germany; these texts purported to represent a secret, initiatory brotherhood which had been founded centuries before by a German adept named Christian Rosenkreutz. There is no evidence that Rosenkreutz was a genuine historical figure, nor that a Rosicrucian Order had ever existed up to that point.

Instead, the manifestos are likely literary creations of Lutheran theologian Johann Valentin Andreae — However, they inspired much public interest, with various individuals coming to describe themselves as "Rosicrucian" and claiming that they had access to secret, esoteric knowledge as a result. A real initiatory brotherhood was established in late 16th-century Scotland through the transformation of Medieval stonemason guilds to include non-craftsman: Freemasonry.

Soon spreading into other parts of Europe, in England it largely rejected its esoteric character and embraced humanism and rationalism, while in France it embraced new esoteric concepts, particularly those from Christian theosophy. The Age of Enlightenment witnessed a process of increasing secularisation of European governments and an embrace of modern science and rationality within intellectual circles. In turn, a "modernist occult" emerged that reflected varied ways in which esoteric thinkers came to terms with these developments.

His writings focused on his visionary travels to heaven and hell and his communications with angels, claiming that the visible, materialist world parallels an invisible spiritual world, with correspondences between the two that do not reflect causal relations. Following his death, followers would found the Swedenborgian New Church , although his writings would influence a far wider array of esoteric philosophies. Mesmer claimed that a universal life force permeated everything, including the human body, and that illnesses were caused by a disturbance or block in this force's flow; he developed techniques which he claimed cleansed such blockages and restored the patient to full health.

These somnambulic trance-states would heavily influence the esoteric religion of Spiritualism , which emerged in the United States in the s and spread throughout North America and Europe. Quimby — and which revolved around the concept of " mind over matter ", believing that illness and other negative conditions could be cured through the power of belief.

In Europe, a movement usually termed " occultism " emerged as various figures attempted to find a "third way" between Christianity and positivist science while building on the ancient, medieval, and Renaissance traditions of esoteric thought.

In the Anglophone world, the burgeoning occult movement owed more to Enlightenment libertines , and thus was more often of an anti-Christian bent that saw wisdom as emanating from the pre-Christian pagan religions of Europe. New esoteric understandings of magic also developed in the latter part of the 19th century. One of the pioneers of this was American Paschal Beverly Randolph — , who argued that sexual energy and psychoactive drugs could be used for magical purposes.

Ouspensky — Emergent occult and esoteric systems found increasing popularity in the early 20th century, especially in Western Europe. Occult lodges and secret societies flowered among European intellectuals of this era who had largely abandoned traditional forms of Christianity. The spreading of secret teachings and magic practices found enthusiastic adherents in the chaos of Germany during the interwar years. Notable writers such as Guido von List spread neo-pagan, nationalist ideas, based on Wotanism and the Kabbalah.

Many influential and wealthy Germans were drawn to secret societies such as the Thule Society. By , Wiligut was "forcibly retired from the SS" due to being institutionalised for insanity. The leaders of the lodge emigrated in order to avoid imprisonment, but in the course of the war Eugen Grosche , one of their main leaders, was arrested for a year by the Nazi government. In the s and s, esotericism came to be increasingly associated with the growing counter-culture in the West , whose adherents understood themselves in participating in a spiritual revolution that would mark the Age of Aquarius.

This trend was accompanied by the increased growth of modern Paganism , a movement initially dominated by Wicca , the religion propagated by Gerald Gardner. In , Asprem and Granholm highlighted that "contemporary esotericism is intimately, and increasingly, connected with popular culture and new media.

Granholm noted that esoteric ideas and images could be found in many aspects of Western popular media, citing such examples as Buffy the Vampire Slayer , Avatar , Hellblazer , and His Dark Materials. Writers interested in occult themes have adopted three different strategies for dealing with the subject: those who are knowledgeable on the subject including attractive images of the occult and occultists in their work, those who disguise occultism within "a web of intertextuality", and those who oppose it and seek to deconstruct it.

The academic study of Western esotericism was pioneered in the early 20th century by historians of the ancient world and the European Renaissance, who came to recognise that — although it had been ignored by previous scholarship — the effect which pre-Christian and non-rational schools of thought had exerted on European society and culture was worthy of academic attention. Walker began arguing that esoteric thought had had a greater effect on Renaissance culture than had been previously accepted.

Faivre noted that there were two significant obstacles to establishing the field. One was that there was an engrained prejudice towards esotericism within academia, resulting in the widespread perception that the history of esotericism was not worthy of academic research. In , the U. McDermott as an outlet for American scholars interested in Western esotericism. In , the University of Amsterdam established a chair in the "History of Hermetic Philosophy and Related Currents", which was occupied by Hanegraaff, [] while in the University of Exeter created a chair in "Western Esotericism", which was taken by Goodrick-Clarke, who headed the Exeter Center for the Study of Esotericism.

Asprem and Granholm noted that the study of esotericism had been dominated by historians and thus lacked the perspective of social scientists examining contemporary forms of esotericism, a situation that they were attempting to correct through building links with scholars operating in Pagan studies and the study of new religious movements. The emic approach is that of the alchemist or theosopher as an alchemist or theosopher. The etic approach is that of the scholar as an historian, a researcher, with a critical view.

Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism - Wouter J. Hanegraaff.pdf

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up.

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia. Western esotericism , also known as esotericism , esoterism , and sometimes the Western mystery tradition , [1] is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society. These ideas and currents are united by the fact that they are largely distinct both from orthodox Judeo-Christian religion and from Enlightenment rationalism. Esotericism has pervaded various forms of Western philosophy , religion , pseudoscience , art , literature , and music , continuing to affect intellectual ideas and popular culture. The idea of grouping a wide range of Western traditions and philosophies together under the category that is now termed esotericism developed in Europe during the late seventeenth century. Various academics have debated how to define Western esotericism, with a number of different options proposed. One scholarly model adopts its definition of "esotericism" from certain esotericist schools of thought themselves, treating "esotericism" as a perennialist hidden, inner tradition.

Blavatsky Bookstore Homepage. In two massive volumes it covers every aspect of pagan, Jewish, and Christian religious discourses and phenomena traditionally labeled gnosticism, hermeticism, astrology, magic, the 'occult sciences,' esoteric religion, and much more. The detailed and insightful articles, on nearly every related topic imaginable, are produced by an impressive array of renowned scholars, and usefully include up-to date bibliographies. Six years in the making, this is a work that every student of religion, ancient and modern, will certainly want to own. Bart D. Ehrman James A.

Dictionary Of Gnosis Western Esotericism By Wouter J Hanegraaff

How to publish with Brill. Fonts, Scripts and Unicode. Brill MyBook. Ordering from Brill. Author Newsletter.

Oct 31, Editor: Wouter J. Some Remarks on the Study of Western Esotericism. What Is Western Esotericism? Western esotericism - Wikipedia.

Western esotericism , also known as esotericism , esoterism , and sometimes the Western mystery tradition , [1] is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society. These ideas and currents are united by the fact that they are largely distinct both from orthodox Judeo-Christian religion and from Enlightenment rationalism. Esotericism has pervaded various forms of Western philosophy , religion , pseudoscience , art , literature , and music , continuing to affect intellectual ideas and popular culture. The idea of grouping a wide range of Western traditions and philosophies together under the category that is now termed esotericism developed in Europe during the late seventeenth century. Various academics have debated how to define Western esotericism, with a number of different options proposed.

After presenting the classic definition of Esotericism, this entry will trace the etymology of the term and the subject matter typically found under its umbrella. The second half of the entry will broadly outline the historical relationship between esotericism and the psychological sciences beginning with Franz Anton Mesmer and culminating in the contemporary New Age. Correspondences : Symbolic and real correspondences are understood to exist between various levels of physical reality, history and

Western esotericism

How to publish with Brill. Fonts, Scripts and Unicode. Brill MyBook. Ordering from Brill. Author Newsletter. How to Manage your Online Holdings. Sales Managers and Sales Contacts.

As we stated previously, the innovation aids us to always recognize that life will be always easier. Hanegraaff practice is additionally one of the perks to obtain today. Hanegraaff in only soft data system that can be opened up every single time you want as well as almost everywhere you need without bringing this Esotericism And The Academy: Rejected Knowledge In Western Culture By Wouter J.

Джабба замер. - О Боже! - Он внезапно понял, что искалеченный гений все это время давал им ответ. - Три - это простое число! - сказала Соши.  - Три - это простое число. Фонтейн пребывал в изумлении.

ГЛАВА 108 Лифт Стратмора начал стремительно спускаться. В кабине Сьюзан жадно вдохнула свежий прохладный воздух и, почувствовав головокружение, прижалась к стенке лифта. Вскоре спуск закончился, переключились какие-то шестеренки, и лифт снова начал движение, на этот раз горизонтальное.

Беккер понял, что с каждой минутой дело все больше запутывается. - С подружкой. Немец был не. Клушар кивнул: - Со спутницей.

 Не знаю, о ком вы говорите, - поправил его Беккер, подзывая проходившую мимо официантку. Он купил две бутылки пива и протянул одну Двухцветному. Панк изумленно взглянул на бутылку, потом отпил изрядный глоток и тупо уставился на Беккера. - Чего вы от меня хотите, мистер. Беккер улыбнулся: - Я ищу одну девушку.

 - Звоните Танкадо. Скажите, что мы сдаемся.

0 Comments