Employee Motivation And Productivity Pdf
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- Seven Employee Motivation Strategies That Boost Productivity
- Why Employee Motivation Is Important (& How to Improve It)
- Employee motivation
Abstract : The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast the theories of motivation and how they are used to inspire employees to develop the drive to achieve. The importance of motivation in organizations and job satisfaction is vital for the achievement of organizational goals and objectives.
Motivation is the most essential part of the work life of an employee. It inspires individuals for putting in their efforts towards the attainment of the organizational goals. The motivational tools should be formulated by taking into consideration the fact that individuals join the organization because they feel that their personal goals would be satisfied by getting associated with the organization.
Seven Employee Motivation Strategies That Boost Productivity
Abstract : The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast the theories of motivation and how they are used to inspire employees to develop the drive to achieve.
The importance of motivation in organizations and job satisfaction is vital for the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. The consequences of organizations operating without any purpose of motivation towards its employees are far catastrophic, such as depression, turnover, burnout which can derail the success of organizations. For organizations to make employees their biggest asset and retention purposes, motivation should be a priority.
The study tries to help organizations with suggestions to cultivate conducive atmospheres and relationships for employees to work under, to foster positive attitudes towards their work. A qualitative approach and theory based application were considered for this study. In all enterprises whether private or state owned, motivation plays a key role in driving employees towards achieving their goals, organizational goals and to a certain extent the dreams of their nations.
There are many theories of motivation, and they mostly give a relation or influence the outcomes of employee job satisfaction. Contemporary theories of motivation incorporate equity, control and agency theory, as well as goal setting, reinforcement, and job design theory. The theories of motivation maybe categorized according to their definitions and purpose but critical analysis reveal that they are all linked, they lead to serving satisfaction in employees.
The use of both content and process theories must be put into practice to motivate employees effectively. If hygiene factors factors outside the job itself, such as working conditions, salary and incentive pay are inadequate, employees become dissatisfied. Rewards as the main factor of motivation can also encourage retention within the organization, and the broader employment relationship and social exchange are significant.
According to David and Anderzej , motivation can be understood as cognitive decision making in which the intension is to make the behavior that is aimed at achieving a certain goal through initiation and monitoring.
At work places, reviews are done using appraisals and appraisals at work have predetermined standards, and their outcome may provoke an emotional reaction in the employee, and this reaction will determine how satisfied or dissatisfied an employee is. Good marks in reviews may reflect that an employee is satisfied and bad marks may reflect the opposite.
In every employee, motivation maybe because outside factors extrinsic such as rewards or within an individual intrinsic , desire to do better. For us to help understand underpinnings to motivation, we must first explore what job satisfaction means because motivated employees will have a job satisfaction.
According to Kumar and Singh , p. Regardless of the actual circumstances and situation, job satisfaction is an emotional response that cannot be seen, only inferred.
Jehanzeb, Rasheed, Rasheed and Aamir , p. Organisations must be seen to support employees in their daily work in order to bring about loyalty and improve retention by removing elements that may create dissatisfaction, while bearing in mind that in a heterogeneous environment, with male and female employees from different age groups, generations, and to a certain extent backgrounds, and with varying qualifications or experience, no single element will produce either universal approbation or collective disapproval.
Based on the basic physical, biological, social and psychological needs of human beings, Maslow came up with a five-stage theory that places the needs of the individual in different categories and prioritizes their attainment. Teachers, like all people, have needs that have to be satisfied. Besides the basic needs for food, shelter and clothing, safety from physical, harm, and social interaction, they also need the recognition and appreciation of students, colleagues, and parents.
At the other end of the spectrum, Herzberg identified institutional politics, the management approach, supervision, pay, relationships at work and working conditions as factors that may demoralize employees. Employees should be promoted after completing certain stages of their career and should receive recognition for special achievements — for example, when they produce exceptional results in their subject areas; on a more basic level, they should also be given responsibility to determine how to handle tasks that relate to their jobs.
The Two-factor theory has however drawn its share of criticism. Golshan et al. Another criticism leveled against it is that it makes assumptions that every individual will react in the same way in the similar situation.
Theory Y assumptions take the opposite view: the mental and physical inputs expended at the workplace are equated and par with those rest or play. External factors or any threats from outside may not be the sole influence for exerting effort. Workers or people can exercise caution and discipline to have objectives achieved, but the hunger in their desire to commit to objectives is dependent on how big are the rewards as assigned to that kind of achievement.
Under normal circumstances, people can adapt to seek responsibility and not only accept it Saif et al. Applying these assumptions to a school environment, one could argue that two of the main causes of dissatisfaction among teachers are having to deal with problem students and a strict and inconsiderate management, for example a principal who is coercive and does not appreciate the efforts of teachers, or an overly directive principal who never delegates or allows teachers to make independent decisions.
This theory is readily applicable to academic environments and explains why some teachers are high achievers, despite the difficulties they face: they set themselves high goals and achieving these goals is what drives them. The equity theory postulates that employees will weigh their input into a job against the output they receive from it — the more the rewards, the greater their satisfaction.
This resonates with Naveed et al. Regarding this theory, employees who perceive that they receive more output from their jobs than what they put into them will experience job satisfaction. Certain aspects of the job itself also shape how an employee perceives it. Tasks that are clarified bring a better job satisfaction since a clear role breeds a work force that is happy, committed and shows much involvement in work that is done.
Authors identified five major job characteristics that impact on the psychological state of an employee and influence their motivation and job satisfaction, as well as their levels of absenteeism, namely the variety of skills involved in a task, the identity and significance of the task, autonomy, and feedback. Employees compare their input-outcome ratio with that of other employees and if they perceive it to be fair, employees will experience satisfaction Robbins, If employees perceive an inequity in their input-outcome ratio compared to other employees, they become dissatisfied and less motivated.
The potential problem with this theory is that there is a possibility of a relationship between what people desire and what they consider important. These concepts can be separable theoretically but practically hard to differentiate. The idea is to derive satisfaction and minimize dissatisfaction in employees.
Individual factors such as personality and skills determine performance Wagner and Hollenburg, The higher the effort in work relates to the higher the performance. This is a comprehensive and more complete theory of motivation which is inclusive of diverse aspects. This model can give details of the fiber relation that exists between job performance and attitudes which perfectly defines managers. The model also touches on the assumptions of human behavior. The deductions of the model assume that individual behavior is influenced by both internal and external factors, rational and make own choices about their behavior, have different goals, desires and needs.
Finally, individuals decide between alternative behaviors Wagner and Hollenburg, Employees who lack motivation in the work places are a risk factor when it comes to executing day to day operations of the business.
Some employees are engaged in company equipment and tools on a daily basis, some of which need maximum attention and safety when using. So it is the responsibility of the organization to have a well-balanced workforce of employees and their emotions as far as work issues are concerned.
Absenteeism: Van der Merwe and Miller , cite a definition used by the United States Department of Labour which defines absenteeism as the failure of workers to report on the job when they are scheduled to work.
Regarding this definition, non-attendance such as vacation leave, military service, block release leave and suspension do not qualify as absenteeism and should be completely excluded from the ensuing absenteeism analysis process. Levy , p. It is the desire of organization to keep their staff for longer periods of time.
Organisations spend a lot of money and time in training their employees. High staff turnover due to unhappy employees will cost the organization of all the spent resources. Strategic leadership is the critical point in achieving companies objectives. Dissatisfaction: The morale of the entire office can be brought down when one employee lacks motivation.
Employees who are not satisfied with their job might resort to quitting; therefore, this scenario should be avoided. The employees are to perform to their abilities in order to satisfy their customers and to retain them all the time. Leadership is very vital because according to Stankiewicz-Mroz , change in human resources will be expected, as well as re-evaluating the paradigms.
A managerial skill will be needed to pull people together for the reputation of the company. Employees who are not happy with the organization will manifest their dissatisfaction to the outside world.
Customers are bound to experience unwelcoming acts of aggression and bitterness emanating from unhappy employees. Poor customer service will be the order of the day among employees which will end up tarnishing the name of the business.
Employees who are not entirely happy at work can have health problems including stress. Stress related illnesses will jeopardize wellness efforts in the work place of keeping healthy employees. Stressed and de-motivated employees may cause accidents at work when using machineries and other dangerous tools. All levels in the organization are be responsible for the safety of risks in the company and help with avoidance of such risks Tasmin and Salehudin, Employees who are highly motivated will always put their best efforts in their work and help the company to be productive.
Production at work will bear more output in which it will be able to generate much needed income. This then will extend to difficulties in acquisitions. Again according to Peter and Daniel , Political influence, outside the context of deficit accommodation, can also provide accommodation for specific fiscal policy initiatives.
Motivation can emanate from with an employee with a passion and desire to work and produce results. This kind of motivation is self-driven by an employee in order to elevate his feelings to accomplish. As is a normal case, employees work in exchange for compensation for their hard labour but how far they go depends on how motivated they are. According to Perry and Hondeghem , the individuals desire to perform, and provide services to customers, with the mandate to do good is enough factor to motivate.
Performance at work is related to the employees pay of which the employee may not have control of that reward as it is external. Apart from rewards, there are other factors that are external such as promotion at work, security of the job, salary increment that may give meaning to employees motivation. Therefore, for organizations to continue existing and retaining its workforce, they must keep on working on strategies that can help in motivating its employees.
Motivated employees have a sense of belonging and loyalty to the organization and always work hard to be associated with the results of their labour. Motivation have effect on employees as individuals to achieve and as well as ability to be innovative because they believe in themselves which will benefit the organization to succeed Yang Jie, A motivated worker is easy to be retained hence saving the organization finances of replacing workers, also it encourages workers to always achieve more on daily productions as they are having a sense of security of their work.
Management will have time to attend to other important issues because their motivated workforce can build teams that can help with the supervision and production of work.
Motivation is very much needed for employees in an organisation to be productive, and management or leadership style has an important role to play. Motivation is not always based on financial rewards, but non-financial rewards methods can also be used to derive the best out of employees.
However, there is no single reliable theory to be used, a mixture of them can be utilized. In terms of empowering workforce, employees should be encouraged and given a platform to voice out their concerns on how they can be motivated. In some organizations, workers perform their duties in an assembly whereby if a certain section of employees is affected it will affect the whole plant.
Employees perform their duties diligently if they are inspired and motivated as the results will always be positive with efficient production. Organizations which are results oriented will go all the way to motivate their employees for them to reach their goals. A further qualitative research on motivation strategies and theories is recommended.
Why Employee Motivation Is Important (& How to Improve It)
When researchers measured the total motivation of employees, they saw that those forced to work from home were the least motivated. The key is for leaders to make sure their weekly routines are not focused only on the tactical work. Many leaders have crossed the first hurdles of moving their teams remote : ensuring colleagues have set up their tech tools, defined their processes, and permanently logged into their video conference accounts. But this is just the first step towards creating an effective work environment for remote employees. The next critical question we must ask is: How do you motivate people who work from home?
Everyone works in expectation of some rewards, and welfare is one of them. Hong, J. Report bugs here. Please share your general feedback. You can join in the discussion by joining the community or logging in here.
PDF | A substantial body of theory and empirical evidence exists to attest to the fact that motivation and productivity are concepts which have.
There are companies that sadly fail to understand the importance of employee motivation. In this article, we look into why employee motivation is important in any businesses or companies. There are several reasons why employee motivation is important. Without a motivated workplace, companies could be placed in a very risky position. Motivated employees can lead to increased productivity and allow an organisation to achieve higher levels of output.
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