Causes And Effects Of Land Degradation Pdf
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- Economics of Land Degradation and Improvement in Tanzania and Malawi
- Land Degradation, Poverty and Marginality
- Land degradation
- Effects of Land Degradation on Soil Fertility: A Case Study of Calabar South, Nigeria
Controlling and reducing soil degradation is a matter of raising awareness of the issue and encouraging innovative approaches in land management techniques. Soil degradation is a growing problem throughout the world, and an important topic for our times as it affects the food we eat every day. Soil degradation is a decline in soil quality due to misuse, usually from agricultural, pastoral, industrial or urban purposes.
Economics of Land Degradation and Improvement in Tanzania and Malawi
What is soil erosion and soil degradation? Although soil erosion is a natural process, human activities over the past decades have greatly accelerated it. In fact, according to the UNESCO , land degradation is undermining the well-being of two-fifths of humanity, driving species extinct and intensifying climate change. Soil erosion is a gradual process of movement and transport of the upper layer of soil topsoil by different agents — particularly water, wind, and mass movement — causing its deterioration in the long term.
In other words, soil erosion is the removal of the most fertile top layer of soil through water, wind and tillage.
Soil erosion is a consequence of unsustainable land use and other disturbances, such as fire, mining, or intensive agricultural uses. The loss of soil may have serious impacts on the quantity and quality of soil ecosystem services, with serious economic, social, and political implications.
Soil erosion is a complex process that depends on soil properties, ground slope, vegetation, and rainfall amount and intensity. According to Montgomery , modifications in land use are one of the most impactful ways of accelerating soil erosion.
These changes then have a cascade effect as the loss of fertile topsoil cover sends millions of tons of sediments into lakes and reservoirs, changing ecosystems and impacting agricultural production and water quality. This has been the case with the Bo River in Vietnam. What are the human causes behind soil erosion then? The most effective way of minimizing erosion is to guarantee a permanent surface cover on the soil surface, such as trees, pasture, or meadow. However, compared to original forest soils, soils in pasture fields and croplands have less capacity to hold up and are more susceptible to erosion.
These soils also have less capacity to absorb water, which makes flooding and its economic, social, and environmental impacts more common. The increasingly high demand of a growing population for commodities such as coffee , soybean, palm oil or wheat is clearing land for agriculture.
With time, as topsoil the most nutrient-rich part of the soil is lost, putting agriculture under threat. Overgrazing is caused by intensive cattle raising. In this process, topsoil sediments are transported elsewhere. As for the remaining soil, it can lose its infiltration capacity, which means more water getting lost from the ecosystem and a harder time for new plants to grow.
The use of chemicals under the form of pesticides and fertilizers on often monocultural crops is a very usual way of helping farmers improve their yields. However, the excessive use of phosphoric chemicals ends up causing an imbalance of microorganisms in the soil moisture, stimulating the growth of harmful bacteria.
As the soil gets degraded, the risk of erosion increases and the sediments sweep via the actions of water and wind into rivers and nearby regions, possibly contaminating nearby ecosystems.
At the same time, tillage techniques that turn over crops and forages commonly used by farmers to prepare seedbeds by incorporating manure and fertilizers, leveling the soil and taking out invasive seeds also have a large impact. Instead, it runs off to flood nearby lands, speeded up erosion in these areas. Moreover, motor-based activities such as motocross also have the potential to disturb ecosystems and change even if at a smaller scale compared with other causes and erode the soil.
Soil is a very important resource that allows the production of food, fiber, or forages. Despite it being a renewable resource, it renews slowly — generating three centimeters of topsoil takes 1, years. Therefore, protecting it is very important to bet on long-term, sustainable agricultural practices since one of the main issues associated with soil erosion is that it comes along a decrease in soil productivity.
These productivity losses reduce the quantity and quality of the food we eat. A study based on the results of 40 soil associations reported that the effects of soil erosion on soil productivity were mostly the result of subsoil properties such as soil water availability, root growth or plow layer fertility — which impact yield results. In the end, with an unfavorable subsoil, erosion is easier and yields and productivity are more greatly affected.
Despite the fact human activities have accelerated soil erosion, there are ways of repairing the damage we have created. From reforestation and windbreaks to stone walls or more sustainable agriculture techniques. Regenerative agriculture techniques have the potential to preserve and restore ecosystems and habitats and improve the quality and health of the soil.
Windbreaks are linear plantings of shrubs and trees with the goal of improving crop production, protect the soil, people, and livestock. According to FAO , windbreaks can reduce wind velocities for a distance approximately 15 times the height of the tallest trees. As a result, there is a lower rate of soil loss across large crop areas.
According to Camera et. According to FAO , reforestation helps reduce sedimentation rates in downstream valleys. According to this UN agency, reforestation on unstable land and around water regions such as rivers increases the water-retention capacity of land and improve water quality, both of which benefit food production. Moreover, according to a recent study published in Nature , reforestation also has a tremendous potential to help fight climate change as trees capture huge amounts of CO2.
Conservation tillage stands for as any form of tillage that minimizes the number of tillage passes. Conservation tillage techniques have the potential to reduce the vertical movements of soil. In this way, more crop residues are left on the soil surface reducing the exposure to water or wind erosion.
FAO, bringing attention to the fact that a lthough soils are essential for human well-being and the sustainability of life on the planet, they are threatened on all continents by natural erosion. The dirt beneath our feet is getting poorer and on many farms worldwide, there is less and less of it. Quote by Franklin D. Soil is lost rapidly but replaced over millennia and this represents one of the greatest global threats for agriculture. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
There are no comments yet. Signup and login to be the first to share your experience or ask more details to the author. Log in and interact with engaging content: show how they matter to you, share your experience First Name. Last Name. Soil Erosion Simple Definition Soil erosion is a gradual process of movement and transport of the upper layer of soil topsoil by different agents — particularly water, wind, and mass movement — causing its deterioration in the long term. What Is Soil Erosion?
Different Soil Erosion Causes Soil erosion is a complex process that depends on soil properties, ground slope, vegetation, and rainfall amount and intensity. According to Al-Kaisi from Iowa State University , there are 5 main types of natural soil erosion: 1 Sheet erosion by water; 2 Wind erosion; 3 Rill erosion — happens with heavy rains and usually creates smalls rills over hillsides; 4 Gully erosion — when water runoff removes soil along drainage lines 5 Ephemeral erosion that occurs in natural depressions.
The Main Causes And Impacts Of Soil Erosion The most effective way of minimizing erosion is to guarantee a permanent surface cover on the soil surface, such as trees, pasture, or meadow. Deforestation for Agriculture Is One of the Top Causes of Soil Erosion The increasingly high demand of a growing population for commodities such as coffee , soybean, palm oil or wheat is clearing land for agriculture.
Agrochemicals Cause Soil Erosion and Degradation The use of chemicals under the form of pesticides and fertilizers on often monocultural crops is a very usual way of helping farmers improve their yields. The Importance of Soil, Especially Topsoil Soil is a very important resource that allows the production of food, fiber, or forages. If we are aware of the fact it takes about years to form 2.
Among other problems is the wide use of ammonia fertilizers, massified by the Haber-Bosch method , with the primary goal of helping increase crop yields but with devastating consequences in marine ecosystems. The academics from the Grantham Centre proposed a couple of solutions to fight soil loss and degradation. Among them are: 1 using biotechnology to wean plants off their dependence upon fertilizers; 2 including recycling nutrients from sewerage or 3 rotating crops with livestock areas to relieve pressure on arable land.
There are, nonetheless, other ways of protecting the soil. How to Prevent Soil Erosion Despite the fact human activities have accelerated soil erosion, there are ways of repairing the damage we have created. Stopping Soil Erosion via Sustainable Farming Practices Regenerative agriculture techniques have the potential to preserve and restore ecosystems and habitats and improve the quality and health of the soil.
Protecting the Soil by Planting Windbreaks Windbreaks are linear plantings of shrubs and trees with the goal of improving crop production, protect the soil, people, and livestock. Conservation Tillage and Soil Erosion Conservation tillage stands for as any form of tillage that minimizes the number of tillage passes.
Quotes on Soil Erosion Every 5 seconds, the equivalent of one soccer field is lost due to soil erosion. How useful is it? Cancel reply Comment Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
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Land Degradation, Poverty and Marginality
Land degradation is a serious impediment to improving rural livelihoods in Tanzania and Malawi. This paper identifies major land degradation patterns and causes, and analyzes the determinants of soil erosion and sustainable land management SLM in these two countries. The analysis of nationally representative household surveys shows that the key drivers of SLM in these countries are biophysical, demographic, regional and socio-economic determinants. Secure land tenure, access to markets and extension services are major factors incentivizing SLM adoption. The implications of this study are that policies and strategies that facilitate secure land tenure and access to SLM information are likely to stimulate investments in SLM.
Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land. This is considered to be an important topic of the 21st century due to the implications land degradation has upon agricultural productivity , the environment, and its effects on food security. According to the Special Report on Climate Change and Land of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change : "About a quarter of the Earth's ice-free land area is subject to human-induced degradation medium confidence. Soil erosion from agricultural fields is estimated to be currently 10 to 20 times no tillage to more than times conventional tillage higher than the soil formation rate medium confidence. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 15 has a target to restore degraded land and soil and achieve a land degradation-neutral world by There are four main ways of looking at land degradation and its impact on the environment around it:.
Environmental Land Use Planning. Land degradation is a concept in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by one or more combination of human induced processes acting upon the land. It literally refers to the impairment of natural quality of soil component of any ecosystem. Land degradation which is also seen as a decline in land quality caused by human activities, has been a major global issue since the 20th century and it has remained high on the international agenda in the 21st century. The importance of land degradation in Calabar South is enhanced because of its impact on food security and quality of the environments. The map of the study area is presented on the next page. Land degradation can be viewed as any change or disturbance to the land perceived to be deleterious or undesirable Eswaran,
About billion people are affected by land degradation and desertification in more than countries, influ-encing over 33% of the earth's land surface. Natural causes of land degradation are earth quakes, tsuna-mis, droughts, avalanche, landslides, mud flow, vol-canic eruptions, flood tornado and wild fire.
Marginality pp Cite as. This chapter emphasizes the complexity and plurality of the types and magnitudes of causal relationships between poverty and environmental degradation, based on a review of the literature. The authors use case studies focused on the issue of land degradation to illustrate these relationships. Land degradation LD is influenced by natural and anthropogenic factors, including socioeconomic conditions. LD is of importance to people because it decreases the provision of terrestrial ecosystem services and the benefits they provide for human well-being.
Omar A. Abdi 1 , Edinam K. Glover 2 , Olavi Luukkanen 1. Glover, Faculty of Law, P.
Soil Use. Published in: Eswaran, H. Lal and P. Land degradation: an overview.
What is soil erosion and soil degradation?
Effects of Land Degradation on Soil Fertility: A Case Study of Calabar South, Nigeria
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Land degradation: the change in the provision of ecosystem goods and services. Analysis of results. Impact: population, poverty and land types. The causes of.
chapter and author info
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