Political Party Structure And Organization Pdf
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- Political Organizations
- Political party
- Parties and Candidates
- State and Local Party Structures: Strengthened and Still Relevant
This article discusses political parties, specifically those that are in and out of legislatures. It first views political parties as institutions and moves on to the party systems.
A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific ideological or policy goals. Political parties have become a major part of the politics of almost every country, as modern party organizations developed and spread around the world over the last few centuries.
Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Political Organizations. IntroductionPolitical organizations are systemic mediators between the society and the political process Wilson, Most of them, including parties, are nonprofit organizations. As agencies of the civil society, their role in relation to members, leaders, and mission is in flux. They face challenges that redefine the idea of political organization. State interests prove more self-referential than initially thought.
Professionalization fuses governing with campaigning. Globalization creates political vacuum that nation-states cannot fill. New social movement organizations step up to complement and even replace parties without being necessarily more representative, legitimate, or accountable. How do political organizations cope with such challenges? How do their structures and systems change in result? Which organizational types are in decline and which on the rise? How do the boundaries of the polity pulse and move?
Where does the fine line between issue advocacy and partisan electioneering lie? Is online activism one of their movers? Does professional communication affect political campaigns? How will al that impact on the future of political organizations? DefinitionMany theoretical approaches use political organization as an operational term, but few build on it as a central idea. Most literature narrows down the definition of political organization to various nonprofits, including parties, which, in one way or another, take part in the political process.
They range from political parties and committees that run candidates for elections to antiestablishment and movement groups that question the status quo of the political system. Among them are advocacy organizations that campaign for one or against another cause, special interest groups that lobby politicians and top public servants, and think tanks that produce policy alternatives. They vary from spontaneous local grassroots groups to hierarchical national and international peak bodies umbrellas and loose coalitions networks of networks.
The latter advocate and lobby for other nonprofits, which may be political environmental and human rights, for example or not such as services, clubs, and self-help groups.
Historic Background Party TransformationParties and party systems undergo changes. Which models of successive transformation are the most significant ones? And how do such changes affect the role of parties as political agents of the civil society?
In liberal democratic polities parties are associations that compete in periodic elections to obtain popular support, control government power and pursue certain policies Neumann, Ideal types of parties try to catch the diversity of their sets and systems Ware, Typologies either build on binary juxtapositions such as elite-based and mass-based, tolerant democratic and hegemonic, dominant, and multiple parties or develop multidimensional models to better reflect historically and geographically unique and hardly classifiable political formations.
Mass PartyThe mass party from the first half of the twentieth century is a classic example of political organization that represents the interests of large and well-defined social groups. Those may be based, for example, on class socialist democracy or denomination Christian democracy Duverger, As old movement organizations, mass parties help their members to take part in the political life.
Members' identity is closely knit into the fabric of the organization. Mass parties provide support and services for their members in exchange of financial contribution and voluntary work. Extensive membership, party unity, discipline, and loyalty are preconditions for successful election campaigns. Electoral mobilization is no different from members' activism.
Once in control of the state, party officials act on behalf of the groups they represent -sometimes against political elites and state bureaucracy perceived as hostile. This type coincided with the new social movements that revolve not around socioeconomic classes but rather sociocultural identities.
Party elites liaised further with state bureaucrats. Recruiting members and citizen participation gave way to the role of advancing candidates aspiring to political office. Politics became more complex and complicated. Politicians self-necessitated through on-the-job professionalization and costly expertise that only the state through the taxpayer money rather than party donations and membership fees could secure.
To capture new groups of voters and compensate for the lessening loyalty of the traditional ones, parties deideologised their platforms, moving from economic and social problems to personal, leadership politics. Mediatization, especially TVtailored campaigns led to the rise of the political consultantpollster and professional communicator -often to detriment of the party democracy. The universality and spread of the catch-all model remains controversial Puhle, It shows the next stage of dialectical transformation of the catch-all party.
Coalescing with the state, major partiesmore often in bipartisan systems -conspire to monopolize office. They no longer represent the interests of the civil society before and within the political authority.
The opposite is true. Parties gradually become the mouthpiece of selfreferential state interests. Parties learn to run without members. In the chase of increasingly volatile voters, parties further transform into electional machines. The power of the unelected professional consultants removes the difference between campaigning and governing Newman, Governing transforms into a permanent campaign Blumenthal, Inter-party collusion arguably leads to policy conversion with neoliberal undertones -an assumption, which is not undisputed Goot, Key Issues Decline of Political Parties?
Katz and Mair insist that their idea of the cartel party does not support the theory of ''party decline. Nevertheless, empirical data confirm the trends of falling party membership and dealignment of party voters in postmaterialist democratic societies Dalton, ;Inglehart, Voters have become more apartisan, less loyal, better educated and more self-sufficient. Also the role of political nonparty partisan and nonpartisan groups is on the rise.
The public resonance and political weight of the most influential advocacy and lobbying groups are so strong that they often split parties internally. Issue Advocacy and Partisan ElectioneeringHow far nonprofit organizations can go politically?
In all liberal democracies there are legal restrictions to the political activities of certain civil organizations, especially those who are tax-exempt, able to give donor status, and receivers of government funding. With the rise of advocacy and lobbying organizations those boundaries are becoming ever more blurred and contested.
In the United Kingdom, for example, the New Labour government imposed limits on voluntary organizations to campaign for a party and support a candidate. This ban works as enabling negative law: anything goes except partisan electioneering. This is the constraining principle of positive law: anything that is not explicitly allowed is forbidden. It is more suitable for public administration rather than civil organizations. The US federal law also bars tax-exempt organizations to give money to a political party or endorsing a candidate Hopkins, A group, for example, is created under the Section of the US tax code.
Otherwise, they also have to register as political action groups PAGs that can campaign for the election or defeat of a candidate for political office, but are subjected to tougher financial control.
The Federal Election Campaign Act distinguishes between advocacy sections c 3 and c 4 and lobbying groups c 4s. They are allowed to press on issues and policies without direct engagement in the electional process, provide this is not most of their work.
To be more flexible in this complex legal environment, MoveOn. And MoveOn. Thanks to the Internet, political organizations are pushing the fine line between issue advocacy and partisan electioneering further than ever before. Their impact on public opinion and election results is growing. They organize voter registration and get-out-the vote campaigns and vigorously support if not candidates so candidates' causes.
In the campaign Rock the Vote signet up over one and half million new, mostly young voters. It did not take political side, but it was obvious for whom those voters will vote in bulk. Money and campaign efficiency prove, again, to be in direct correlation. Online participation and fund-raising offer new possibilities for issue advocacy. Yet old socioeconomic and political inequalities also reemerge on the web.
They have limited validity for non-Western societies. For example, the Fatherland Front in communist Bulgaria transformed from an antifascist movement during World War II into a satellite nonpartisan ''people's movement'' mobilizing the ''partyless'' for the goals of the communist party Brunnbauer, In Indonesia in the s and s Suharto's Golkar was a federation of nonprofit organizations that transformed into an ''apolitical'' and ''nonideological'' political organization.
Not being officially a ''party'' it used to beat the two smaller ''registered'' parties during elections Suryadinata, Being aware of the contradiction between genesis and trans-contextuality, researchers enlarge the sample of their cases, adding more non-European parties to the European ones.
The families of the presidential candidates joined in the festivities at the Democratic National Convention in Charlotte, North Carolina, left and the Republican National Convention in Tampa, Florida right. If the purpose of political parties is to work together to create and implement policies by winning elections, how do they accomplish this task, and who actually participates in the process? The answer was fairly straightforward in the early days of the republic when parties were little more than electoral coalitions of like-minded, elite politicians. But improvements in strategy and changes in the electorate forced the parties to become far more complex organizations that operate on several levels in the U. Modern political parties consist of three components identified by political scientist V. Key: the party in the electorate the voters ; the party organization which helps to coordinate everything the party does in its quest for office ; and the party in office the office holders. To understand how these various elements work together, we begin by thinking about a key first step in influencing policy in any democracy: winning elections.
Political party , a group of persons organized to acquire and exercise political power. Political parties originated in their modern form in Europe and the United States in the 19th century, along with the electoral and parliamentary systems , whose development reflects the evolution of parties. The term party has since come to be applied to all organized groups seeking political power, whether by democratic elections or by revolution. In earlier, prerevolutionary, aristocratic and monarchical regimes, the political process unfolded within restricted circles in which cliques and factions, grouped around particular noblemen or influential personalities, were opposed to one another. The establishment of parliamentary regimes and the appearance of parties at first scarcely changed this situation. To cliques formed around princes, dukes, counts, or marquesses there were added cliques formed around bankers, merchants, industrialists, and businessmen. Regimes supported by nobles were succeeded by regimes supported by other elites.
Parties and Candidates
Political parties operate at the local level in municipal and county elections though many cities choose officials — mayors and members of city council — through nonpartisan elections, in which candidates effectively run as independents without party affiliation. In partisan elections, the party is involved in identifying candidates, providing professional staff, and taking positions on issues of immediate concern to voters. The party leadership recognizes that the interaction between party workers, candidates, and voters is important. In the late 19th century on through a good part of the 20th century, political machines flourished in several large cities; Tammany Hall in New York, Frank Hague in Jersey City, the Pendergast family in Kansas City, and Richard Daley in Chicago are examples. The political bosses, the mayors, and the party leaders used their control of patronage jobs to reward party loyalty and provide a broad range of social services.
Она терпеть не могла, когда он называл ее Сью. Вообще-то она ничего не имела против этого имени, но Хейл был единственным, кто его использовал, и это было ей неприятно. - Почему бы мне не помочь тебе? - предложил Хейл. Он подошел ближе. - Я опытный диагност.
Пальцы Соши стремительно забегали по клавишам. - Так посылал свои распоряжения Цезарь! - сказала Сьюзан. - Количество букв всегда составляло совершенный квадрат.
Дэвид не мог прийти в. - Но, Сьюзан… я думал… - Он взял ее за дрожащие плечи и повернул к .
State and Local Party Structures: Strengthened and Still Relevant
Сьюзан едва могла говорить. - Никакой Цифровой крепости не существует, - еле слышно пробормотала она под завывание сирены и, обессилев, склонилась над своим компьютером. Танкадо использовал наживку для дурачков… и АНБ ее проглотило. Сверху раздался душераздирающий крик Стратмора. ГЛАВА 86 Когда Сьюзан, едва переводя дыхание, появилась в дверях кабинета коммандера, тот сидел за своим столом, сгорбившись и низко опустив голову, и в свете монитора она увидела капельки пота у него на лбу.
Черт побери, немедленно отключить. Мидж появилась в дверях со свежей распечаткой в руке. - Директор, Стратмору не удается отключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - Что?! - хором вскричали Бринкерхофф и Фонтейн. - Он пытался, сэр! - Мидж помахала листком бумаги. - Уже четыре раза. ТРАНСТЕКСТ заклинило.
Банк данных снова был в безопасности. В комнате творилось нечто невообразимое. Техники обнимали друг друга, подбрасывая вверх длинные полосы распечаток. Бринкерхофф обнимал Мидж. Соши заливалась слезами. - Джабба, - спросил Фонтейн, - много они похитили. - Совсем мало, - сказал Джабба, посмотрев на монитор.
Types of political party
Терпкий аромат красного вина ударил в ноздри Беккера, когда падре Херрера опустил перед ним серебряную, отполированную миллионами рук чашу. Немного рано для алкогольных напитков, подумал Беккер, наклоняясь. Когда серебряный кубок оказался на уровне его глаз, возникло какое-то движение, и в полированной поверхности смутно отразилась приближающаяся фигура. Беккер заметил металлический блеск в тот самый миг, когда убийца поднимал пистолет, и, как спринтер, срывающийся с места при звуке стартового выстрела, рванулся. Насмерть перепуганный священник упал, чаша взлетела вверх, и красное вино разлилось по белому мрамору пола.
Отключить все это без подготовки - значит парализовать разведдеятельность во всем мире. - Я отдаю себе отчет в последствиях, сэр, - сказал Джабба, - но у нас нет выбора. - Объясните, - потребовал Фонтейн. Он посмотрел на Сьюзан, стоявшую рядом с ним на платформе. Казалось, все происходящее было от нее безумно .
От этого кольца мне было не по .