Encyclopedia Of International Media And Communications Pdf
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International communication also referred to as the study of global communication or transnational communication is the communication practice that occurs across international borders.
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An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia British English is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge either from all branches or from a particular field or discipline. Encyclopedia entries are longer and more detailed than those in most dictionaries. Encyclopedias have existed for around 2, years and have evolved considerably during that time as regards to language written in a major international or a vernacular language , size few or many volumes , intent presentation of a global or a limited range of knowledge , cultural perspective authoritative, ideological, didactic, utilitarian , authorship qualifications, style , readership education level, background, interests, capabilities , and the technologies available for their production and distribution hand-written manuscripts, small or large print runs, Internet.
As a valued source of reliable information compiled by experts, printed versions found a prominent place in libraries, schools and other educational institutions. The appearance of digital and open-source versions in the 21st century, such as Wikipedia , has vastly expanded the accessibility, authorship, readership, and variety of encyclopedia entries.
Diderot . Because of this compounded word, fifteenth century readers and since have often, and incorrectly, thought that the Roman authors Quintillian and Pliny described an ancient genre. In the sixteenth century there was a level of ambiguity as to how to use this new word. As several titles illustrate, there was not a settled notion about its spelling nor its status as a noun. There have been two examples of the oldest vernacular use of the compounded word.
In approximately , Franciscus Puccius wrote a letter to Politianus thanking him for his Miscellanea , calling it an encyclopedia. Several encyclopedias have names that include the suffix -p a edia , to mark the text as belonging to the genre of encyclopedias. An example is Banglapedia on matters relevant for Bangladesh. The modern encyclopedia was developed from the dictionary in the 18th century. Historically, both encyclopedias and dictionaries have been researched and written by well-educated, well-informed content experts , but they are significantly different in structure.
A dictionary is a linguistic work which primarily focuses on alphabetical listing of words and their definitions. Synonymous words and those related by the subject matter are to be found scattered around the dictionary, giving no obvious place for in-depth treatment.
Thus, a dictionary typically provides limited information , analysis or background for the word defined. While it may offer a definition, it may leave the reader lacking in understanding the meaning, significance or limitations of a term , and how the term relates to a broader field of knowledge. To address those needs, an encyclopedia article is typically not limited to simple definitions, and is not limited to defining an individual word, but provides a more extensive meaning for a subject or discipline.
In addition to defining and listing synonymous terms for the topic, the article is able to treat the topic's more extensive meaning in more depth and convey the most relevant accumulated knowledge on that subject. An encyclopedia article also often includes many maps and illustrations , as well as bibliography and statistics.
An encyclopedia is, theoretically, not written in order to convince, although one of its goals is indeed to convince its reader of its own veracity. Four major elements define an encyclopedia: its subject matter, its scope, its method of organization, and its method of production:. Some works entitled "dictionaries" are actually similar to encyclopedias, especially those concerned with a particular field such as the Dictionary of the Middle Ages , the Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships , and Black's Law Dictionary.
The Macquarie Dictionary , Australia's national dictionary, became an encyclopedic dictionary after its first edition in recognition of the use of proper nouns in common communication, and the words derived from such proper nouns. There are some broad differences between encyclopedias and dictionaries. Most noticeably, encyclopedia articles are longer, fuller and more thorough than entries in most general-purpose dictionaries. Generally speaking, dictionaries provide linguistic information about words themselves, while encyclopedias focus more on the thing for which those words stand.
As such, dictionary entries are not fully translatable into other languages, but encyclopedia articles can be. In practice, however, the distinction is not concrete, as there is no clear-cut difference between factual, "encyclopedic" information and linguistic information such as appears in dictionaries. Encyclopedias have progressed from written form in antiquity, to print in modern times.
Today they can also be distributed and displayed electronically. One of the earliest encyclopedic works to have survived to modern times is the Naturalis Historiae of Pliny the Elder , a Roman statesman living in the first century AD.
He compiled a work of 37 chapters covering natural history, architecture, medicine, geography, geology, and other aspects of the world around him. He stated in the preface that he had compiled 20, facts from works by over authors, and added many others from his own experience.
The work was published around AD 77—79, although Pliny probably never finished editing the work before his death in the eruption of Vesuvius in AD Isidore of Seville , one of the greatest scholars of the early Middle Ages , is widely recognized for writing the first encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, the Etymologiae The Etymologies or Origines around , in which he compiled a sizable portion of the learning available at his time, both ancient and contemporary.
The work has chapters in 20 volumes, and is valuable because of the quotes and fragments of texts by other authors that would have been lost had he not collected them. The most popular encyclopedia of the Carolingian Age was the De universo or De rerum naturis by Rabanus Maurus , written about ; it was based on Etymologiae. The encyclopedia of Suda , a massive 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia, had 30 entries, many drawing from ancient sources that have since been lost, and often derived from medieval Christian compilers.
The text was arranged alphabetically with some slight deviations from common vowel order and place in the Greek alphabet. The early Muslim compilations of knowledge in the Middle Ages included many comprehensive works. Also notable are works of universal history or sociology from Asharites , al-Tabri , al-Masudi , Tabari 's History of the Prophets and Kings , Ibn Rustah , al-Athir , and Ibn Khaldun , whose Muqadimmah contains cautions regarding trust in written records that remain wholly applicable today.
The enormous encyclopedic work in China of the Four Great Books of Song , compiled by the 11th century during the early Song dynasty — , was a massive literary undertaking for the time. The last encyclopedia of the four, the Prime Tortoise of the Record Bureau , amounted to 9. The 'period of the encyclopedists' spanned from the tenth to seventeenth centuries, during which the government of China employed hundreds of scholars to assemble massive encyclopedias.
In late medieval Europe, several authors had the ambition of compiling the sum of human knowledge in a certain field or overall, for example Bartholomew of England , Vincent of Beauvais , Radulfus Ardens , Sydrac , Brunetto Latini , Giovanni da Sangiminiano, Pierre Bersuire. Some were women, like Hildegard of Bingen and Herrad of Landsberg.
Both were written in the middle of the 13th century. Medieval encyclopedias were all hand-copied and thus available mostly to wealthy patrons or monastic men of learning; they were expensive, and usually written for those extending knowledge rather than those using it. In Nuremberg Chronicle was produced, containing hundreds of illustrations, of historical figures, events and geographical places. Written as an encyclopedic chronicle, it remains one of the best-documented early printed books—an incunabulum —and one of the first to successfully integrate illustrations and text.
Illustrations depicted many never before illustrated major cities in Europe and the Near East. During the Renaissance , the creation of printing allowed a wider diffusion of encyclopedias and every scholar could have his or her own copy.
This work followed the traditional scheme of liberal arts. However, Valla added the translation of ancient Greek works on mathematics firstly by Archimedes , newly discovered and translated. The Margarita Philosophica by Gregor Reisch , printed in , was a complete encyclopedia explaining the seven liberal arts.
The first work titled in this way was the Encyclopedia orbisque doctrinarum, hoc est omnium artium, scientiarum, ipsius philosophiae index ac divisio written by Johannes Aventinus in The English physician and philosopher, Sir Thomas Browne used the word 'encyclopaedia' in in the preface to the reader to define his Pseudodoxia Epidemica , a major work of the 17th-century scientific revolution.
Browne structured his encyclopaedia upon the time-honoured scheme of the Renaissance, the so-called 'scale of creation' which ascends through the mineral, vegetable, animal, human, planetary, and cosmological worlds. Pseudodoxia Epidemica was a European best-seller, translated into French, Dutch, and German as well as Latin it went through no fewer than five editions, each revised and augmented, the last edition appearing in Financial, commercial, legal, and intellectual factors changed the size of encyclopedias.
During the Renaissance , middle classes had more time to read and encyclopedias helped them to learn more. Publishers wanted to increase their output so some countries like Germany started selling books missing alphabetical sections, to publish faster.
Also, publishers could not afford all the resources by themselves, so multiple publishers would come together with their resources to create better encyclopedias.
When publishing at the same rate became financially impossible, they turned to subscriptions and serial publications. This was risky for publishers because they had to find people who would pay all upfront or make payments. When this worked, capital would rise and there would be a steady income for encyclopedias. Later, rivalry grew, causing copyright to occur due to weak underdeveloped laws. Some publishers would copy another publisher's work to produce an encyclopedia faster and cheaper so consumers did not have to pay a lot and they would sell more.
Encyclopedias made it to where middle-class citizens could basically have a small library in their own house. Europeans were becoming more curious about their society around them causing them to revolt against their government.
The beginnings of the modern idea of the general-purpose, widely distributed printed encyclopedia precede the 18th century encyclopedists.
Chambers, in , followed the earlier lead of John Harris's Lexicon Technicum of and later editions see also below ; this work was by its title and content "A Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: Explaining not only the Terms of Art, but the Arts Themselves".
Popular and affordable encyclopedias such as Harmsworth's Universal Encyclopaedia and the Children's Encyclopaedia appeared in the early s. In the United States, the s and s saw the introduction of several large popular encyclopedias, often sold on installment plans. The best known of these were World Book and Funk and Wagnalls. Jack Lynch says in his book You Could Look It Up that encyclopedia salespeople were so common that they became the butt of jokes.
He describes their sales pitch saying, "They were selling not books but a lifestyle, a future, a promise of social mobility. The second half of the 20th century also saw the proliferation of specialized encyclopedias that compiled topics in specific fields, mainly to support specific industries and professionals.
This trend has continued. Encyclopedias of at least one volume in size now exist for most if not all academic disciplines , including such narrow topics such as bioethics. By the late 20th century, encyclopedias were being published on CD-ROMs for use with personal computers. Microsoft 's Encarta , published between and , was a landmark example as it had no printed equivalent.
Articles were supplemented with both video and audio files as well as numerous high-quality images. Digital technologies and online crowdsourcing allowed encyclopedias to break away from traditional limitations in both breadth and depth of topics covered. Wikipedia , a crowd-sourced, multilingual , open licence , free online encyclopedia supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation and open source MediaWiki software opened in Most contributors use pseudonyms and stay anonymous.
Content is therefore reviewed, checked, kept or removed based on its own intrinsic value and external sources supporting it. Traditional encyclopedias' reliability, on their side, stand upon authorship and associated professional expertise.
Many academics, teachers, and journalists rejected and continue to reject open, crowd sourced encyclopedias, especially Wikipedia, as a reliable source of information, and Wikipedia is itself not a reliable source according to its own standards because of its openly editable and anonymous crowdsourcing model. There are several much smaller, usually more specialized, encyclopedias on various themes, sometimes dedicated to a specific geographic region or time period. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Type of reference work. This article is about the type of reference work. For other uses, see Encyclopedia disambiguation. Indeed, the purpose of an encyclopedia is to collect knowledge disseminated around the globe; to set forth its general system to the men with whom we live, and transmit it to those who will come after us, so that the work of preceding centuries will not become useless to the centuries to come; and so that our offspring, becoming better instructed, will at the same time become more virtuous and happy, and that we should not die without having rendered a service to the human race in the future years to come.
Main article: History of encyclopedias.
Nature Of International Law Pdf. Learn more. We would recommend starting with. Post-registration Procedures. International Law. The common sources of law are codified laws, judicial precedents, customs, juristic writings, expert opinions, morality and equity.
Everyone agrees that we're living in the Information Age. How have we shaped the Information Age, and how has it shaped us? The Encyclopedia of International Media and Communications exhaustively explores the ways that editorial content--from journalism and scholarship to films and infomercials is developed, presented, stored, analyzed, and regulated around the world. For readers and researchers of all levels, the Encyclopedia provides perspective and context about content, delivery systems, and their myriad relationships, as well as clearly drawn avenues for further research. University, research, public, and special libraries worldwide. The comprehensive coverage of media in countries and regions worldwide should increase the appeal of the project because everybody can find themselves in it. Schools of journalism and communication, as well as professional journalism and communication organizations.
Encyclopedia of International Media and Communications
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Indian media was active since the late 18th century. The print media started in India as early as Radio broadcasting began in Indian media is among the oldest in the world.
What is Primoridalism 1. Idea that nation and nationalism are old phenomena and so they are natural and universal. Find more terms and definitions using our Dictionary Search.
Chapter 1 Networking Fundamentals. Some explanations of networking found in books and tutorials are highly technical, designed for students and professionals, while others are geared more to home and business uses of computer networks.
Несмотря на интенсивное движение, воздух был наполнен сладким ароматом севильских апельсиновых деревьев. Спустились сумерки - самое романтическое время суток. Он подумал о Сьюзан.
Джабба повернулся к монитору и вскинул руки. - Почему среди нас нет ни одного ядерного физика. Сьюзан, глядя на мультимедийный клип, понимала, что все кончено.
Читайте! - Джабба обливался. - В чем разница. Должна же она. - Да! - Соши ткнула пальцем в свой монитор. - Смотрите.
- Сэр, мне кажется… что с ТРАНСТЕКСТОМ какая-то проблема. Стратмор закрыл дверцу холодильника и без тени волнения взглянул на Чатрукьяна. - Ты имеешь в виду работающий монитор.
ТРАНСТЕКСТ. Правда о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ.