Hippocampus Structure And Function Pdf

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hippocampus structure and function pdf

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Humans and other mammals have two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain. The hippocampus is part of the limbic system , and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory , and in spatial memory that enables navigation. The hippocampus is located in the allocortex , with neural projections into the neocortex in humans, [1] [2] [3] as well as primates.

Structure, function, and plasticity of hippocampal dentate gyrus microcircuits

The hippocampus mediates several higher brain functions, such as learning, memory, and spatial coding. The input region of the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus, plays a critical role in these processes. Dentate gyrus granule cells receive excitatory neuron input from the entorhinal cortex and send excitatory Dentate gyrus granule cells receive excitatory neuron input from the entorhinal cortex and send excitatory output to the hippocampal CA3 region via the mossy fibers. Furthermore, several types of GABAergic interneurons are present in this region, providing inhibitory control over granule cell activity via feedback and feedforward inhibition. Finally, hilar mossy cells mediate another excitatory loop in the circuit.

Hippocampus , region of the brain that is associated primarily with memory. The hippocampus, which is located in the inner medial region of the temporal lobe, forms part of the limbic system, which is particularly important in regulating emotional responses. The hippocampus is thought to be principally involved in storing long-term memories and in making those memories resistant to forgetting, though this is a matter of debate. It is also thought to play an important role in spatial processing and navigation. The anatomy of the hippocampus is of chief importance to its function. The hippocampus receives input from and sends output to the rest of the brain via a structure known as the entorhinal cortex, which is located beneath the anterior frontal region of the hippocampus. The hippocampal formation itself is composed of several subregions, which include the cornu ammonis CA1—4 , the dentate gyrus, and the subiculum.

Functional organization of the hippocampal longitudinal axis

The brain is an amazing three-pound organ that controls all functions of the body, interprets information from the outside world, and embodies the essence of the mind and soul. Intelligence, creativity, emotion, and memory are a few of the many things governed by the brain. Protected within the skull, the brain is composed of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The brain receives information through our five senses: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing - often many at one time. It assembles the messages in a way that has meaning for us, and can store that information in our memory. The brain controls our thoughts, memory and speech, movement of the arms and legs, and the function of many organs within our body.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. The currently accepted model of a dorsal—ventral posterior—anterior dichotomy of hippocampal function requires revision. Anatomical studies in rodents and primates show that hippocampal extrinsic connectivity is organized as smooth topographical gradients. The relative size of spatial representation by place cells in the rat hippocampus gradually increases from dorsal to ventral.

The limbic system is a convenient way of describing several functionally and anatomically interconnected nuclei and cortical structures that are located in the telencephalon and diencephalon. These nuclei serve several functions, however most have to do with control of functions necessary for self preservation and species preservation. They regulate autonomic and endocrine function, particularly in response to emotional stimuli. They set the level of arousal and are involved in motivation and reinforcing behaviors. Additionally, many of these areas are critical to particular types of memory. Some of these regions are closely connected to the olfactory system, since this system is critical to survival of many species.

The hippocampus communicates with widespread regions of cortex through a group of highly interconnected brain regions in the medial temporal.

What is the hippocampus?

T1-weighted image for acquisition of hippocampal volume. The borders of the hippocampus were traced manually in the coronal orientation with simultaneous monitoring for accuracy in the sagittal and axial orthogonal views. Cerebral blood volume CBV maps of the hippocampal formation. B and C, High-resolution T1-weighted images are subsequently acquired before B and after C injection of a contrast agent. D1-D4, The CBV maps are generated by subtracting the precontrast from the postcontrast scan and dividing the subtracting images by the degree of contrast enhancement observed in the sagittal sinus red triangle [C].

What is the hippocampus?

The hippocampus is a part of the brain. It is found in the inner folds of the bottom middle section of the brain, known as the temporal lobe. Humans have known about the hippocampus for more than 4 centuries.

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