Epigenetic Modifications And Human Disease Pdf File
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In biology , epigenetics is the study of heritable phenotype changes that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence.
- What is epigenetics?
- Epigenetic responses and the developmental origins of health and disease
- Introduction to epigenetics
What is epigenetics?
Metabolic chronic diseases, also named noncommunicable diseases NCDs , are considered multifactorial pathologies, which are dramatically increased during the last decades. Noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancers, and chronic respiratory diseases markedly increase morbidity, mortality, and socioeconomic costs. Moreover, NCDs induce several and complex clinical manifestations that lead to a gradual deterioration of health status and quality of life of affected individuals. Multiple factors are involved in the development and progression of these diseases such as sedentary behavior, smoking, pollution, and unhealthy diet. Indeed, nutrition has a pivotal role in maintaining health, and dietary imbalances represent major determinants favoring chronic diseases through metabolic homeostasis alterations. In particular, it appears that specific nutrients and adequate nutrition are important in all periods of life, but they are essential during specific times in early life such as prenatal and postnatal phases.
Chemical compounds that are added to single genes can regulate their activity; these modifications are known as epigenetic changes. Epigenetic modifications remain as cells divide and in some cases can be inherited through the generations. Epigenetic changes can help determine whether genes are turned on or off and can influence the production of proteins in certain cells, ensuring that only necessary proteins are produced. For example, proteins that promote bone growth are not produced in muscle cells. Patterns of epigenetic modification vary among individuals, different tissues within an individual, and even different cells. A common type of epigenetic modification is called DNA methylation. DNA methylation involves attaching small molecules called methyl groups, each consisting of one carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms, to segments of DNA.
Eleven bibliographic databases Embase. We included all randomized controlled trials, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies in humans that examined associations between epigenetic marks and ND. Two independent reviewers, with a third reviewer available for disagreements, performed the abstract and full text selection. Data was extracted using a pre-designed data collection form. Of 6, searched references, 73 unique case-control studies met our inclusion criteria. Overall, 11, individuals were included in this systematic review 2, AD and 2, PD outcomes. Studies reported epigenetic regulation of 31 genes including cell communication, apoptosis, and neurogenesis genes in blood and brain tissue in relation to AD and PD.
Epigenetic responses and the developmental origins of health and disease
For a long time, scientists have tried to describe disorders just by genetic or environmental factors. However, the role of epigenetics in human diseases has been considered from a half of century ago. In the last decade, this subject has attracted many interests, especially in complicated disorders such as behavior plasticity, memory, cancer, autoimmune disease, and addiction as well as neurodegenerative and psychological disorders. This review first explains the history and classification of epigenetic modifications, and then the role of epigenetic in biology and connection between the epigenetics and environment are explained. Furthermore, the role of epigenetics in human diseases is considered by focusing on some diseases with some complicated features, and at the end, we have given the future perspective of this field. The present review article provides concepts with some examples to reveal a broad view of different aspects of epigenetics in biology and human diseases. Based on our understanding of epigenetics, actual epigenetic definitions express that the whole DNA content is exactly the same in somatic cells of one species, while gene expressions patterns have distinct differences in various cell types that can be clonally inherited[ 2 ].
Your genes play an important role in your health, but so do your behaviors and environment, such as what you eat and how physically active you are. Epigenetics is the study of how your behaviors and environment can cause changes that affect the way your genes work. Unlike genetic changes, epigenetic changes are reversible and do not change your DNA sequence, but they can change how your body reads a DNA sequence. Gene expression refers to how often or when proteins are created from the instructions within your genes. Epigenetic changes affect gene expression in different ways. Types of epigenetic changes include:. This chemical group can be removed through a process called demethylation.
Among the epigenetic modifications of interest are DNA methylation, histone modifications, and related transcription inactivation associated with chromatin.
Introduction to epigenetics
This paper is part of a thematic section on 30 Years of the Developmental Endocrinology of Health and Disease. Maternal and paternal factors influence offspring development and program its genome for successful postnatal life. Based on the stressors during gestation, the pregnant female prepares the fetus for the outside environment. For instance, nutritional insufficiency in utero will lead to programming events that prepare the fetus to cope up with nutrient scarcity following birth; however, offspring may not face nutrient scarcity following birth. Thus, this developmental programming may be both beneficial as well as harmful depending on the prenatal vs postnatal environment.