Distribution And Ecology Of Sand Fly Vectors Of Leishmania Donovai In Ethiopia Pdf

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distribution and ecology of sand fly vectors of leishmania donovai in ethiopia pdf

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Distribution of Human Leishmaniasis (VL) and Its Associated Risk Factors, in Metemma, Ethiopia

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Leishmaniases are tropical zoonotic diseases, caused by kinetoplastid parasites from the genus Leishmania. New World NW species are related to sylvatic cycles although urbanization processes have been reported in some South American Countries such as Colombia. Currently, few studies show the relative distribution of Leishmania species related to cutaneous Leishmaniasis CL in South America due to the lack of accurate surveillance and public health systems.

Visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis are important public health problems in Ethiopian lowland and highland areas respectively. Control of leishmaniasis requires proper understanding of human parasites transmissions anthroponotic or zoonotic or both. The aim of this review was to elaborate different ecologies of leishmaniasis based on evidences from previous researches and information from literatures obtained from different sources including PubMed to describe zoonotic leishmaniasis in Ethiopia with possible control methods. Although vectors of leishmaniasis in Ethiopia are not endophelic, night indoor visits of Phlebotomus vectors for possible blood meal on human have been indicated. Thus, application of indoor and domestic residual insecticides spraying, use of insecticide impregnated fine mashed bed net for visceral leishmaniasis, community based manipulation destruction and residual insecticide fogging of hyrax-sand fly habitats for cutaneous leishmaniasis are the visible vector and reservoir control methods that can be used for control of these diseases in Ethiopia. Use of repellants during night outdoor activities of people in the endemic areas requires further investigations. Impact Factor 1.

Box , Mekelle, Ethiopia. Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by obligate intracellular protozoans of the genus Leishmania. To assess the distribution of human leishmaniasis and assess community knowledge, attitude, and practice with regard to assumed risk factors and control options used by the society. Retrospective study from November to May was used. Six-year data from Metemma hospital record was reviewed and 89 people were interviewed. C and E. C, respectively.

Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis

Metrics details. Ethiopia is affected by human leishmaniasis caused by several Leishmania species and transmitted by a variety of sand fly vectors of the genus Phlebotomus. The sand fly fauna in Ethiopia is highly diverse and some species are closely related and similar in morphology, resulting in difficulties with species identification that requires deployment of molecular techniques. DNA barcoding entails high costs, requires time and lacks reference sequences for many Ethiopian species. Yet, proper species identification is pivotal for epidemiological surveillance as species differ in their actual involvement in transmission cycles. In our study, we used an integrative taxonomic approach to identify most of the important sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in Ethiopia, applying three complementary methods: morphological assessment, sequencing analysis of two genetic markers, and MALDI-TOF MS protein profiling. Although morphological assessment resulted in some inconclusive identifications, both DNA- and protein-based techniques performed well, providing a similar hierarchical clustering pattern for the analyzed species.

Javascript is currently disabled in your browser. Several features of this site will not function whilst javascript is disabled. Received 14 January Published 3 May Volume Pages — Review by Single anonymous peer review. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis VL , which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to , people per year.

Visceral leishmaniasis VL is a neglected tropical disease, which is strongly associated with poverty. VL caused by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by Phlebotomus orientalis is endemic in various remote areas of north and north-west Ethiopia. The present study was designed to determine the sand fly fauna and bionomics of P. All sand fly specimens collected were identified to species level and counted. In total, , sand fly specimens, belonging to 25 sand fly species nine Phlebotomus and sixteen Sergentomyia were collected and identified. As it could be determined from the proportion of collections from outdoor peri-domestic and agricultural fields and indoor locations, P. The outdoor to indoor index was on m 2 of sticky traps.

Ecology and control of the sand fly vectors of Leishmania donovani in East Africa, PDF. Sections. ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION; Phlebotomus orientalis Parrot as the principal vectors of L. donovani in Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya () investigated the seasonal distribution of P. orientalis for a whole.

Epidemiology and Ecology of Leishmaniasis

Visceral leishmaniasis VL has been known to occur since the s on the western bank of the White Nile River Central Sudan , km south of Khartoum, and has resulted in high mortality. The most recent outbreak of the disease in this area began in Sandflies were collected using Centers for Disease Control light traps and sticky oil traps in the village of Kadaba and the nearby woodland. Phlebotomus females were dissected for the presence of Leishmania promastigotes.

Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease after malaria and lymphatic filariasis. It is common disease in all over the world. The vector for leishmaniasis is Phlebotomus and there have found around 20 different types of this vector.

Ochollo is a village in southern Ethiopia burdened with cutaneous leishmaniasis CL , where Phlebotomus pedif er is the only vector for Leishmania aethiopica and hyraxes are confirmed reservoir hosts. A detailed description of the different players of transmission, and the ecology and seasonality of the vector needs to be established in order to accomplish efficient control programs. Between March and February , a monthly sandfly collection was carried out in different habitats and records of temperature and humidity were taken. Rodents and hyraxes were trapped in the dry and wet season. Additionally, the species of sandfly specimens from different habitats and seasons was identified. The overall sandfly and P. The kDNA prevalence varied over the months and was negatively correlated with the temperature.

Это кошмар наяву. Я понимаю, ты расстроена из-за Дэвида. Я не хотел, чтобы ты узнала об этом. Я был уверен, что он тебе все рассказал. Сьюзан ощутила угрызения совести. - Я тоже хватила через край.

Его лицо залила мертвенная бледность. Беккер предпринял последнюю попытку: - Мистер Клушар, я хотел бы получить показания этого немца и его спутницы. Вы не скажете, где они могли остановиться. Клушар закрыл глаза, силы покинули. Он едва дышал. - Хоть что-нибудь, - настаивал Беккер.


Сьюзан нахмурилась. Она понимала, что найти принадлежащую Хейлу копию ключа будет очень трудно. Найти ее на одном из жестких дисков - все равно что отыскать носок в спальне размером со штат Техас. Компьютерные поисковые системы работают, только если вы знаете, что ищете; этот пароль - некая неопределенность. К счастью, поскольку сотрудникам шифровалки приходилось иметь дело с огромным количеством достаточно неопределенных материалов, они разработали сложную процедуру так называемого неортодоксального поиска.

Беккер засмеялся. И увидел, что никто даже не улыбнулся, когда текст был наконец расшифрован. Беккер так и не узнал, какие страшные секреты он помог раскрыть, ни одна вещь не вызывала у него никаких сомнений. АНБ очень серьезно относилось к дешифровке. Полученный чек превышал его месячное университетское жалованье.

Сьюзан открыла один из каналов. На экране высветилось предупреждение: Информация, содержащаяся в этом файле, предназначена исключительно для научного использования. Любые частные лица, которые попытаются создать описанные здесь изделия, рискуют подвергнуться смертоносному облучению и или вызвать самопроизвольный взрыв. - Самопроизвольный взрыв? - ужаснулась Соши.  - Господи Иисусе. - Ищите.

 Чатрукьян был совсем мальчишка. Ради всего святого, зачем вы это сделали. Чтобы скрыть свою маленькую тайну.

Она зажмурилась. - Попробую угадать. Безвкусное золотое кольцо с надписью по-латыни. - Нет.

Что помогло бы мне? - сказал Беккер. Росио покачала головой: - Это. Но вам ее не найти. Севилья - город большой и очень обманчивый.

Повернувшись к терминалу Хейла, Сьюзан вдруг уловила странный мускусный запах - очень необычный для Третьего узла. Она подумала, что дело, быть может, в неисправном ионизаторе воздуха. Запах показался ей смутно знакомым, и эта мысль пронзила ее холодом. Сьюзан представила себе Хейла в западне, в окутанной паром ловушке. Может быть, он что-нибудь поджег.

 - Включилось питание от автономных генераторов.


  1. Zina M. 19.04.2021 at 14:52

    Request PDF | Ecology and Control of the Sand Fly Vectors of profiles as determinants of sandfly distribution (Bhunia et al., ; Elnaiem, ). In northwestern Ethiopia, the sand fly vector species of L. donovani has.