Genomics Proteomics And Metabolomics In Nutraceuticals And Functional Foods Pdf

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Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Inulin, a natural renewable polysaccharide resource produced by various plants in nature, has been reported to possess a significant number of diverse pharmaceutical and food applications.

Recently, there has been rapid progress in high-throughput technologies and platforms to assay global mRNA, proteins, metabolites and gut microbiota. In this review, we will describe the current status of utilizing omics technologies of elucidating the impact of inulin and inulin-containing prebiotics at the transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and gut microbiome levels.

Although many studies in this review have addressed the impact of inulin comprehensively, these omics technologies only enable us to understand physiological information at each different stage of mRNA, protein, metabolite and gut microbe. We believe that a synergistic approach is vital in order to fully illustrate the intricate beauty behind the relatively modest influence of food factors like inulin on host health. Plant bulbs of Asteraceae use it as a means for storing nutrients.

Sometimes it is used in place of sugar, fat and flour. Inulin is included in Jerusalem artichoke , chicory Cichorium intybus , dandelion and dahlia. Inulin or inulin-containing prebiotic fiber as a functional food. Inulin is a natural renewable polysaccharide resource produced by various plants in nature. Plant bulbs of Asteraceae : Jerusalem artichoke and chicory Cichorium intybus use it as a means for storing nutrients.

Inulin is also included in dandelion and dahlia. Inulin is indeed present in commonly consumed plants and can be added to normal food products. In addition, inulin dietary intervention can regulate the key physiological functions such as lipid metabolism; 21 they modulate the composition of gut microbiota, which has a major role in gastrointestinal physiology, and, finally, might have a role in reducing the risk of colon cancer.

In recent years, there has been rapid progress in high-throughput technologies and platforms to assay global mRNA, proteins, metabolites and gut microbiota. Application of omics technologies in functional evaluation of inulin and inulin-containing prebiotic fibers.

Inulin dietary intervention can regulate the key physiological functions such as lipid metabolism and composition of gut microbiota, and can reduce cancer risk. Omics technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, metagenomics of the gut microbiota and genomics of the gut microbes have been employed to elucidate the functionality of inulin supplementation.

Transcriptomics is the most widely employed omics technology, as compared with others in food research, because of the many merits of the DNA microarray technology, which include the comprehensiveness of the gene expression data, established protocols and high reliability and reproducibility of the data.

As a digital measure count data , it scales linearly even at extreme values, whereas microarrays only show saturation of analog-type fluorescent signals. Recently, Sevane et al. Overall, differentially expressed genes were identified because of inulin dietary supplementation, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway visual analysis identified that three immune-system-related genes, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1B , acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 6 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, alpha , were upregulated with inulin supplementation.

Comprehensive gene expression analyses have revealed that inulin supplementation, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long-chain fatty acids, is also involved in chicken growth and performance.

This study is useful in the application of promoting the use of prebiotics on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for producing chickens with a healthier meat lipid profile and also for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming.

In addition, Parnell and Reimer 34 identified possible mechanisms through which prebiotic fibers improve serum lipids. Expression levels of hepatic genes primarily associated with cholesterol metabolism, cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase , hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase , lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 , were significantly decreased in rats fed on prebiotic fibers.

There was also an increase in cecal digesta as well as an upregulation of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and bile production. As such, prebiotic fibers containing inulin may be considered as a potential dietary intervention for hypercholesterolemia.

Biochemical parameters measured include body composition, gastric-emptying, energy expenditure, plasma satiety hormone concentrations and presence of gut microbiota detected using quantitative PCR. Ghrelin O -acyltransferase mRNA levels of the fundus in the stomach were higher in obese rats as compared with lean rats, and had lowered gene expression in the OHF group. It was revealed that prebiotics regulated several of the mechanisms including food intake, satiety hormones and alterations in gut microbiota in a dose-dependent manner.

As such, the results of this study conclude that the combined effects of prebiotics may have a therapeutic potential for obesity. In a study by Chang et al. Dietary JA supplementation significantly improved insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation.

Transcriptomic profiling of the liver revealed that FRU significantly altered the expression of malic enzyme 1, associated with fatty-acid synthesis; decorin, related to fibrosis; cytochrome P, family 1, subfamily a, polypeptide 2; and nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase associated with inflammation, whereas dietary JA supplementation significantly modulated the expression of these genes.

Wu and Chen 37 attempted to compare and investigate the effects of konjac glucomannan KGM. It was observed that the incorporation of KGM and inulin into the high-fat, fiber-free diet beneficially reduced the malondialdehyde levels of the colon and liver and DNA damage in blood lymphocytes. In addition, the gene expressions of colonic mucosa glutathione peroxidase and catalase and of hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase were upregulated by dietary intervention of both fibers.

These results suggest that in vivo utilization of KGM and inulin activates both the local and systemic antioxidative defense systems in rats. In a novel study by Everard et al. It was observed that, whereas HFD feeding significantly decreased the expression of regenerating islet-derived 3-gamma Reg3g and phospholipase A2 group-II PLA2g2 in the jejunum, prebiotic dietary intervention upregulated Reg3g expression and improved gut homeostasis as suggested by the increase in the protein expression levels of intectin that has a main role in gut epithelial cell turnover.

In addition, prebiotic supplementation also counteracted gut microbiota modulations induced by HFD-induced inflammation and related metabolic disorders. The separation, quantification and identification of proteins are the steps commonly involved in proteome analyses. However, the differential imaging gel electrophoresis method is a more sophisticated strategy based on the same principle of separation in which proteins of different samples are pre-labeled with different fluorescent dyes.

Gel-free separation usually relies on chromatography that includes two-dimensional chromatography. Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation reagents are designed in a manner in which their mass is isobaric.

As such, differentially labeled proteins do not differ in mass. In MS scans, the corresponding proteolytic peptides appear as single peaks. As such, in this section, we would focus on using proteomic technologies to analyze components and stability of the inulin compound.

Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of proteins from chicory root was performed before the first freezing period. From the protein spots analyzed, proteins corresponded to a database accession, of which were classified into the following functional categories: metabolism, energy, protein synthesis, cell structure, folding and stability, proteolysis and stress response. The importance of abiotic stress response was attested, as 7 of the 21 most intense protein spots observed are known to be involved in cold acclimation, suggesting the major effect of the low-temperature period that preceded root harvesting.

Metabolomics is widely used in the identification of disease biomarkers. There are various challenges in the metabolite analysis because of the diversity of the chemical properties of metabolites, which is larger in number than those of transcripts and proteins. In addition, another difficulty derives from the width of the abundance of metabolites.

As such, metabolite analysis usually requires the use of techniques requiring a high skill level. Despite these difficulties, metabolome analysis is a powerful tool in the field of food and nutrition science.

Duan et al. Multiple univariate data analysis is a high-throughput method utilized to visualize and efficiently extract information on metabolites significantly affected by an intervention. Inulin intake attenuated some of the HFD-induced metabolic changes in both myocardium 3-HB, lactate and guanosine and testicle tissues 3-HB, inosine and betaine. These observations suggest that inulin intervened HFD-induced metabolic changes and illustrated that multiple univariate data analysis is a power-alternative method in metabolomics analysis.

De Preter et al. According to their chemical classes, a total of different volatile organic compounds were identified and classified. The concentrations of esters, acids and some aldehydes were significantly increased with increasing doses of inulin.

On the contrary, inulin dose-dependently inhibited the formation of S-compounds. In addition, the generation of other protein fermentation metabolites such as phenolic compounds was inhibited in the presence of inulin. The gut microbiota consists of all the microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract. In most mammals, the gut microbiota is dominated by four bacterial phyla, Firmicutes , Bacteroidetes , Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria , which perform roles that define the health of the host.

Results from deep metagenomic sequencing revealed that HFD and prebiotic treatment significantly altered the gut microbiome at different taxonomic levels. Finally, the modulations in gut microbiota induced by prebiotic intervention counteracted HFD-induced inflammation and related metabolic disorders. In this review, we have highlighted several studies that have analyzed the impact of inulin supplementation using various omics technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and metagenomics.

Genomic technologies, for example, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, 58 fluorescent in situ hybridization 59 and in situ hybridization with 16S rRNA-targeting probes, 60 are also some of the popular omics technologies that have been used in the interpretation of inulin intervention.

Another genomic approach includes the application of 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing using capillary sequencer. In a study by Ramirez-Farias et al. The prevalence of most bacterial groups examined was not affected. However, there was a significant increase in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii after inulin intake. Using clone library analysis, the composition of the genus Bifidobacterium was studied in four of the volunteers.

There were between three and five Bifidobacterium spp. Using real-time PCR, the four most prevalent Bifidobacterium spp. In addition, the amount of B. The effects of inulin on the gut microbiota were investigated using fluorescent in situ hybridization in growing pigs.

Bifidobacteria were observed in less than half of the pigs and in pigs that were administered inulin-containing diets, higher colonic bifidobacteria and lower total colonic SCFA concentrations due to reduced acetate, but higher proportions of colonic butyrate were observed. As such, inulin supplementation affected gut luminal SCFA and the number of pigs harboring bifidobacteria. Consumption of I-PHGG produced clinical results comparable to placebo in constipated females, but had additional protective effects on gut microbiota by decreasing the amount of pathological bacteria of the Clostridium genera.

It was reported that the fermentors supported growth of a lower proportion of Gram-positive anaerobes related to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii , Ruminococcus flavefaciens — R. Inulin from dahlia resulted in a significant increase in the number of bacteria related to R. Roseburia -related strain A F was able to grow on all substrates, despite the fact that it was unable to utilize complex carbohydrates in pure culture, and it was assumed that this organism survived by cross-feeding.

In contrast, Roseburia gutis L R and Eubacterium sp. Microbial breakdown of both oligosaccharides and SCFA production was colon compartment-specific, with ascending and transverse colon being the predominant site of inulin and arabinoxylan oligosaccharide degradation, respectively. Inulin dietary intervention slightly affected concentrations of lactate, propionate and butyrate. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, it was also revealed that inulin supplementation modulated microbial metabolism by modifying the microbial community composition.

The results indicate that inulin has a lower potency than arabinoxylan oligosaccharide to shift part of the sugar fermentation toward the distal colon parts. Furthermore, as AXOS has a stronger propionate-stimulating effect, it may be suitable for lowering cholesterol and beneficially affecting host lipid metabolism as a prebiotic candidate.

At the end of the treatment period, 16S rRNA-targeted probes applied in in situ hybridization were used to observe the changes in bacterial population groups in response to feeding these diets. It was observed that there were larger numbers of cecal, colonic and fecal bacteria of the C.

Omics and Integrated Omics for the Promotion of Food and Nutrition Science

Description Food Bioscience is a peer-reviewed academic journal publishing original research articles, reviews, and commentaries concerning the latest development in multidisciplinary areas in food science, with an emphasis on the mechanistic studies of food quality and stability at the molecular and cellular levels. In addition, we also address up-to-date research highlights, news and views, and commentaries covering research policies and funding trends. All research and review articles are subject to strict peer review organized by the journal, and final acceptance or rejection decision resides with the Editor-in-Chief of Food Bioscience. Aims and scope Food Bioscience is a peer-reviewed journal that aims to provide a forum for recent developments in the field of bio-related food research. The journal focuses on both fundamental and applied research worldwide, with special attention to ethnic and cultural aspects of food bioresearch. Topics covered in the journal include but are not limited to: 1 Biochemical, biophysical and biological properties of foods, ingredients, and components 2 Mechanism of functional foods and ingredients including both novel and traditional fermented foods 3 Genetic, and cellular and molecular biology germane to food production and processing 4 Foodomics: comprehensive studies involving genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, nutrigenomics and chemogenomics of foods and their interactions with humans 5 Biomaterials for food-related systems such as food packaging, food analysis, and delivery of nutraceuticals an d functional food additives 6 Application of novel technology to foods.

Genomics, Proteomics and Metabolomics in Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Innovative and high-performance technologies are revolutionising medical research with their ability to assess individual health indicators, and thus allow the examination of multiple human and environmental conditions simultaneously. This is proving powerful in targeting and preventing human diseases more accurately. Personalised nutrition: Personalised nutrition is based on the use of genetic, phenotypic, medical, nutritional, and other relevant information about individuals to deliver specific and targeted advice, products, or services, to achieve a dietary behavioural change proven to be beneficial for health.

Omics and Integrated Omics for the Promotion of Food and Nutrition Science

Потом закрыл глаза и глубоко вздохнул. Беккер не сразу почувствовал, что его кто-то подталкивает. Подняв глаза, он увидел старика с усыпанным родинками лицом, который стоял перед ним, намереваясь пройти. Беккера охватила паника. Он уже хочет уйти.

К счастью, ножки стола были снабжены роликами. Упираясь ногами в толстый ковер, Сьюзан начала изо всех сил толкать стол в направлении стеклянной двери. Ролики хорошо крутились, и стол набирал скорость. Уже на середине комнаты она основательно разогналась. За полтора метра до стеклянной двери Сьюзан отпрянула в сторону и зажмурилась.

Он говорил авторитетно и увлеченно, не обращая внимания на восторженные взгляды студенток. Беккер был смуглым моложавым мужчиной тридцати пяти лет, крепкого сложения, с проницательным взглядом зеленых глаз и потрясающим чувством юмором. Волевой подбородок и правильные черты его лица казались Сьюзан высеченными из мрамора. При росте более ста восьмидесяти сантиметров он передвигался по корту куда быстрее университетских коллег.

Я только что выяснил, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ устарел. Все дело в алгоритме, сочинить который оказалось не под силу нашим лучшим криптографам! - Стратмор стукнул кулаком по столу. Сьюзан окаменела. Она не произнесла ни слова. За десять лет их знакомства Стратмор выходил из себя всего несколько раз, и этого ни разу не произошло в разговоре с .


  1. Hygin P. 10.04.2021 at 11:12

    Genomics, Proteomics and Metabolomics in Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods​, Second Edition. Editor(s). Debasis Bagchi; Anand Swaroop.

  2. ArcГЎngel P. 13.04.2021 at 18:53

    Functional foods and nutraceuticals have received considerable interest in the past decade largely due to increasing consumer awareness of the health benefits​.

  3. Mohammed G. 18.04.2021 at 01:45

    The emergence of food metabolomics, otherwise known as foodomics, has opened new frontiers and possibilities for scientists to characterize and simultaneously determine and obtain the comprehensive profile of the food metabolome.

  4. Ronda T. 18.04.2021 at 20:46

    Blackwellspublishing program has been merged with Wileys global Scientific, Technical, and Medicalbusiness to form Wiley-Blackwell.

  5. Abigail B. 19.04.2021 at 04:54

    Nutrition is an interdisciplinary science that studies the interactions of nutrients with the body in relation to maintenance of health and well-being.