Pdf Reflections On Community Organization Enduring Themes And Critical Issues Disruptive
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If education is to play a role in the transition to a sustainable well-being society, what issues of purpose and practice arise? How can schools achieve the agility, not only to adapt to a changing environment, but also to engage in transformative action? What roles must the teacher assume in such a setting, and what kinds of training and development will be necessary?
Background: Government, industry and charitable organisations have an increasing focus on programs intended to support community resilience to disasters.
The Leader’s Guide to Corporate Culture
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. We begin our discussion of organizational culture with a case study from the aerospace industry Snyder, :. Plant 10 of Lockheed-California's L program was considered an albatross by Lockheed's top management.
In , when Dan Daniels was named vice president of manufacturing and given direct responsibility for the plant, he faced a myriad of performance problems in Plant 10, including production behind schedule, production costs significantly over budget, quality problems, a climate of fear that suppressed information needed to correct problems, and open hostility between departments.
Fortunately, from his experiences over the years, Daniels had developed a strong managerial philosophy that was very different from the autocratic and demeaning style of management for which Plant 10 had been known. From his first week there, Daniels embarked on actions of cultural significance.
He began by sending a memo to all employees expressing his philosophy. Realizing they would read more into what he did than what he said, he then promoted his philosophy by walking around and talking to people throughout the plant.
At first they were reluctant to talk, but Daniels was persistent and open. He worked with people to solve problems and urged his managers to do the same. He made it clear to his managers that employees were to be treated considerately and fired one punitive manager who was unable or unwilling to change his style. Another manger who would not provide accurate information was replaced. To build team spirit, managers were issued special blue flight jackets that they wore with pride.
In these and other ways, Daniels consistently put his philosophy into action. By , two years later, the entire plant was on schedule and under. Morale had also greatly improved. Daniels had succeeded in drastically changing the plant's culture and, in the process, had achieved impressive gains in performance. Organizations have always had cultures, and some managers have probably always been astute enough to figure out how to manage them, as this case illustrates.
Systematic research on the cultures of work organizations and how they might be managed to enhance performance and productivity, however, was not pursued with any frequency until the s. A number of popular management books published at that time called attention to cultural issues in the management of organizations Ouchi, ; Pascale and Athos, ; Peters and Waterman, ; Deal and Kennedy, The general theme of these books was that managers can shape the cultures of the organizations they manage in ways that enhance performance and productivity.
Each organization, it was suggested, could develop a distinctive culture with the enlightened guidance of management. The appearance of these volumes and the competitive threat posed by Japanese organizations that was evident at that time awakened substantial interest in the cultures of work organizations within the management community. Another example Wilmer et al. Union-management conflict had raged for 20 years resulting in strikes, absenteeism, and low productivity and quality.
The original intent was simply to adopt and learn Toyota's highly successful production system. But because the Japanese production system depended on positive relations between management and labor, many Japanese management principles and practices were also adopted and gradually modified to fit the American work force.
These changes gave rise to a new culture that fostered trust, mutual respect, and the recognition of the interdependencies between management and labor and between different parts of the plant. Employees and management ate together in a communal cafeteria; there were no reserved parking places; offices were open.
Work charts, attendance boards, and defect records hung on the wall in work team areas. Consensual decision making became the norm.
By the late s, the Japanese had scaled back their presence at the plant, but the original U. NUMMI continued to be both efficient and to have high-quality, producing the same number of cars as GM did in the same plant in the past with much higher quality and half the work force.
In May of its Geo Prizm won the highest quality score ever attained by a U. From these and other cases, it became clear that cultural factors play an important role in organizational performance, but there was a dearth of systematic knowledge on which to base interventions into organizational cultures. Academic researchers found the popular treatments of culture too.
Before the popular books appeared, research on organizational cultures was sparse. After their appearance, the research literature grew rapidly, but researchers have thus far failed to reach consensus on either theoretical or methodological issues. The field of organizational culture research is still at a very early stage of development.
Because every definition of culture involves sets of ideas that cannot be directly observed, and because these ideas and related behaviors are theorized to be interconnected and likely to form unique patterns within any given organization over time, empirical study of them is extremely difficult. Established quantitative methods using questionnaires, archival data, and laboratory observations have severe limitations, primarily because they require researchers to decide in advance what a culture is like in order to measure it, and they usually fail to capture the continuity and all of the context in which the studied phenomena occur.
Qualitative methods adapted from anthropology, sociology, and other fields require intensive observations over substantial time periods and thus limit how many organizations can be studied by any group of researchers. As a result, theoretical discussions and debates about organizational cultures far outnumber empirical studies, and empirical results do not cumulate well.
Any discussion of what is known about organizational cultures must depend heavily on theory to fill in the gaps and connect empirical results from one study to another. Because of the paucity and scattered nature of the empirical findings on organizational cultures, we do not know for certain exactly how the cultures of the Lockheed L program and of NUMMI affected employee performance.
The current state of knowledge, however, is sufficient to be able to specify likely pathways through which cultures affect individual and collective work performance and to identify levers that can be used by managers and others to enhance such performance. But first we address what culture is, what it does for people, how it arises, and where it is found.
Although the research literature contains many different conceptualizations of culture, researchers agree reasonably well on what culture is, what it does, and how it arises. Most basic is that culture is a collective phenomenon. People who belong to the same culture think and behave similarly in key respects. Most researchers agree that organizational cultures have both ideational and observable aspects Kopelman et al. In terms of the two examples given above, the new management principles people subscribed.
Two influential treatments of culture present these two elements of culture—ideas and actions—in somewhat different terms. Schein portrays culture as existing at three levels of awareness. The most apparent are artifacts, which are visible organizational structures and processes. Somewhat less evident are espoused values, which are the strategies, goals, and philosophies expressed by managers and other members of the organizational culture. Least evident are what he calls the basic underlying assumptions, which are unconscious and taken-for-granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings.
He sees the latter as the "ultimate source of values and action" Other writers have applied the metaphor of layers to Schein's basic conceptualization, portraying culture as consisting of successive encompassing layers, like those of an onion Ott, ; Rousseau, ; Hunt, The outer layer is composed of the observable aspects of culture, whereas the two inner layers are ideational.
Trice and Beyer describe these two aspects of cultures as substance and forms. The substance of cultures consists of shared, emotionally charged belief systems that they call ideologies. By ideologies they mean "shared, interrelated sets of beliefs about how things work; values that indicate what's worth having or doing; and norms that tell people how they should behave" p.
Although they agree with Schein and others that cultural substance is often taken for granted and tacit, they suggest that certain circumstances or informed efforts can bring cultural substance to awareness. They define cultural forms as the observable entities, including actions, through which members of a culture express, affirm, and communicate the substance of their culture to one another. Team meetings, the communal cafeteria, posted defect records, and consensual decision making are examples of cultural forms that symbolically communicated and affirmed new beliefs and values at the NUMMI plant.
What cultures do for human societies is manage collective uncertainties and create social order, continuity, collective identity, and commitment Trice and Beyer, On the down side, they also encourage ethnocentrism, we-versus-them thinking Druckman, Of course, cultures are neither monolithic nor simple, but rather have underlying dualities.
Some of their consequences are practical, others are expressive; some are obvious, others are hidden; some are positive for the cultural entity; others are negative. To illustrate just the latter duality, the cultures of organizations may enhance performance in relatively stable times but prove to be an impediment to needed change when environments become unstable.
Another important conceptual issue concerns the origins of culture. Schein sees culture as the result of a complex learning process that occurs among. Their shared learning addresses two major problems: 1 survival, growth, and adaptation in the environment and 2 internal integration that permits a group to function and adapt Schein, Because human beings have the capacity to abstract and be self-conscious, this learning can occur at both a behavioral and an abstract internal level.
Culture formation then occurs as people strive toward stability, consistency, and meaning. An early analysis of ways of studying culture pointed out that it can be viewed either as a property of organizations—something the organization has —or as something the organization is Smircich, Most popular treatments of culture describe it as just another variable that characterizes the organization—in effect, as something that the organization has.
Scholarly treatments of culture, however, vary considerably. Studies that use quantitative methods usually treat culture as a variable that can be measured much like other properties of organizations Denison, ; Schneider, ; Hofstede et al. Studies that use qualitative methods, particularly those in the ethnographic tradition, are more likely to treat cultures as something the organization is Rohlen, ; Barley, , ; Van Maanen, , ; Trice and Sonnenstuhl, ; Kunda, ; Browning et al.
Many of these studies seek to describe cultures and their contexts in rich detail and from their members' point of view and to develop grounded theory—that is, theories derived from a rigorous analysis of qualitative data systematically generated from observations, interviews, and relevant documents. Such theory helps to explain what was observed in the setting and contributes to general theory by abstracting those elements and relationships from the situation that appear to have the most explanatory power for possible future study in other settings.
Despite differences in approach, most organizational researchers agree on six aspects of organizational culture:. The multiplicity of cultures to which organization members belong greatly complicates the analysis of how cultures affect work performance.
Although the presence of multiple cultures in organizations is generally recognized,. Researchers have focused on national cultures Williams, ; Hofstede, ; Bellah et al. The most likely reason for this limitation of focus is methodological.
Studying even one level of culture well is difficult and time-consuming. Studies sometimes incorporate some treatment of adjoining levels of culture, either by design or because they emerge as important during the course of the study, but these inclusions are neither systematic nor similar enough to make the separate effects of different levels of culture evident.
Because this chapter focuses primarily on the organizational level of analysis, the term culture is used to refer to the cultures of whole organizations and the term subcultures is used to refer to any other cultures existing at lower levels of analysis within organizations.
Although few studies have tried to look at more than one type of culture at a time, all of the cultures to which organization members belong have the potential to affect their work performance. The limits of empirical evidence to date make us dependent on theory to suggest which levels of culture might matter most for the performance of employees and organizations and to specify how cultures affect that performance.
Before discussing the little that is known about culture and performance, we examine some of the problems involved in evaluating effects. Documenting an empirical link between organizational culture and effectiveness is fraught with difficulty Siehl and Martin, For example, determining the relationship between culture and performance requires researchers to control for and thus measure other factors likely to affect performance.
A later section on theoretical linkages between culture and performance specifies some of these, but it does not exhaust the possibilities. One reason identifying such mediating factors is difficult is because it is not clear what is not affected by culture.
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The counterculture of the s was an anti-establishment cultural phenomenon that developed throughout much of the Western world between the mids and the mids. Civil Rights Movement continued to grow, and, with the expansion of the American Government 's extensive military intervention in Vietnam , would later become revolutionary to some. Many key movements related to these issues were born or advanced within the counterculture of the s. As the era unfolded, what emerged were new cultural forms and a dynamic subculture that celebrated experimentation, modern incarnations of Bohemianism , and the rise of the hippie and other alternative lifestyles. This embrace of creativity is particularly notable in the works of British Invasion bands such as the Beatles , as well as of New Hollywood filmmakers, whose works became far less restricted by censorship. Within and across many disciplines, many other creative artists, authors, and thinkers helped define the counterculture movement. Everyday fashion experienced a decline of the suit and especially of the wearing of hats ; styles based around jeans , for both men and women, became an important fashion movement that has continued up to the present day, and likely into the future.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. We begin our discussion of organizational culture with a case study from the aerospace industry Snyder, :. Plant 10 of Lockheed-California's L program was considered an albatross by Lockheed's top management. In , when Dan Daniels was named vice president of manufacturing and given direct responsibility for the plant, he faced a myriad of performance problems in Plant 10, including production behind schedule, production costs significantly over budget, quality problems, a climate of fear that suppressed information needed to correct problems, and open hostility between departments.
Your contribution can help change lives. Donate now. Learn more. Community organization is the process of people coming together to address issues that matter to them. Community members developing plans for how the city can be a place where all its children do well. Neighbors joining in protests to stop drugs and violence in their community. Members of faith communities working together to build affordable housing.
Download Ebook Current Issues Enduring Questions 9th Edition. Current Issues Enduring Enduring Questions + Achieve for Current Issues and Enduring Questions Six- system really works, and how to disrupt it Cops, politicians, and ordinary people to keep communities safer—without relying as much on police.
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Camp is an aesthetic style and sensibility that regards something as appealing because of its bad taste and ironic value. Camp can also be a social practice and function as a style and performance identity for several types of entertainment including film, cabaret, and pantomime. Where high art necessarily incorporates beauty and value, camp necessarily needs to be lively, audacious and dynamic. Camp art is related to—and often confused with— kitsch , and things with camp appeal may also be described as "cheesy".
Sustaining behavior change, however, can be even harder. Reflections on community organization enduring themes and critical issues. Cultivating presence is really useful for experiencing dhikr of t. Making the decision to quit smoking, switch to a healthier diet or start an exercise regimen are familiar cases in point.
Most people think of psychologists in very traditional ways. For example, if you were to close your eyes and imagine a psychologist, there is a good chance you would think of a clinician or therapist. Clinical psychologists in their office settings often treat people with psychological problems one at a time by trying to change thought patterns, perceptions, or behavior. Although there is a clear need for this traditional model for those with medical or psychological problems, many do not have access to these services, and a very different approach will be required to successfully solve many of the individual and community problems that confront us. In the US, it began in the s during a time when the nation was faced with protests, demonstrations, urban unrest, and intense struggles over issues such as the Vietnam War and the Civil Rights Movement. Many psychologists wanted to find ways to help solve these pressing societal issues, and some therapists were becoming increasingly disillusioned with their passive role in solely delivering the medical model, office-based psychotherapy Cowen,
We explore why and how corporations seek to build community resilience as a strategic response to grand challenges. Based on a comparative case study analysis of four corporations strategically building community resilience in five place-based communities in South Africa, as well as three counterfactual cases, we develop a process model of corporate practices and contingent factors that explain why and how some corporations commit to community resilience building and whether they try to do so directly or indirectly. Despite significant prior scholarly work on corporate social and ecological responsiveness e. These efforts were strategic in that they involved significant investments, which were motivated by managers with reference to core business risks, rather than regulatory compliance, stakeholder expectations, reputation, or philanthropic objectives. There has been some research on business organisations building their own resilience Linnenluecke or on community empowerment e. Nor could predominant resource-based or institutional theoretical explanations for corporate social or environmental responsiveness see, e. We thus ask, why and how do corporations seek to build community resilience as a strategic ambition?
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