Photobiological Safety Of Lamps And Lighting Systems Pdf

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Blue light hazard – new recommendations on the assessment of LED lamps and luminaires

T he EN standard is one of the most important documents discussing photobiological hazards. The standard defines principles which should be followed to assess photobiological hazards and safety of artificial and natural sources of optical radiation. It covers all kinds of sources emitting optical radiation in a very wide range of wavelength — in ultraviolet, visible spectrum and far infrared. Presence near the emitting source, depending on its type, can lead to injuries and even to serious illnesses.

Persons exposed to ultraviolet, visible or infrared radiation, can have the biological tissues of their eyes and skin damaged. Conjunctivitis, keratitis and erythema are frequent consequences of ultraviolet radiation. Long term UV radiation can damage eyes and skin and lead to such problems as cataract, skin ageing and skin cancer. Equally affected are persons exposed to intensive visible or infrared radiation.

Visible radiation, and particularly its thermal and photochemical mechanisms, can damage eye retina. Even short term infrared radiation, with high radiation intensity, can damage the external layer of eyes cornea and lead to premature ageing of the skin. For these reasons the measurement range imposed by the standard is wide, from to nm. Therefore, assessment of photobiological hazard becomes a complex metrological problem, which requires specialist calibrated measurement equipment and extensive technical skills of laboratory personnel.

The measurement equipment used to assess hazard should have high resolution and must be properly calibrated. LED lamps and luminaires used for general lighting purposes and in industrial applications emit mainly optical radiation in the visible range. Therefore, unlike lamps of other types, LED lamps and luminaires create mainly photobiological blue light hazard. Assessment of photobiological safety of blue light emitting sources and luminaires presented in EN [1] and extensively described by Pietrzykowski [2] covers lamps and luminaires:.

The spectroradiometer is calibrated with spectroradiometer standards: deuter discharge lamp for UV and tungsten-halogen lamp for UVA, visible and near infrared areas. Radiance Telescope — an attachment to measure radiance, connected to the spectroradiometer with fiber optic.

Standard PN-EN was supplemented with Technical Report IEC TR [3], which contains extremely important explanations and guidelines on the assessment of blue light hazard emitted by lighting products, which emit mainly optical radiation in the visible area.

Using optical and spectral calculations, the report explains that measurements of photobiological safety described in IEC inform us about a product, if the product is intended to be used as a component of a more complex lighting product, and how this information can be transferred from the component of a product to a complex product. In many countries, including in Poland, IEC technical reports, are made part of the generally applicable standards, and for this reason there are no normative documents.

Fortunately, this situation will be improved shortly since the International Electrotechnical Commission decided to replace the Technical report with an international standard. The first draft of the standard has already been published [4]. As stated above, many light sources used for general lighting purposes emit mainly visible radiation.

All these sources, to a larger or lesser extent, create blue light photobiological hazard. The Report introduces a few new physical terms and their definitions. The terms are used to assess blue light hazard and they include:. E B or L B to the corresponding radiation quantity:. Assessment of blue light photobiological hazard usually requires time consuming measurements. However, correlations existing between photometric and colorimetric quantities and blue light hazard effective quantities help to simplify the assessment in certain cases.

As a result of the assessment light sources are grouped into RG0 or RG1 hazard groups; if light sources are classified as RG2 hazard group, then threshold illuminance E thr is determined. The method uses relations existing between quantities which describe blue light hazard and photometric and colorimetric quantities of a light source and is applied to white light sources only.

When correlated color temperature T cp of the light source is calculated, the corresponding value of threshold illuminance E thr is found in Table 2. Table 2. Conservative assessment of E thr as the function of correlated color temperature T cp. If correlated color temperature T cp and source luminance L s are known, we can also determine the conservative value of luminance L using Table 3, and compare it with L s.

Table 3. Conservative assessment of luminance values producing hazard group lower than RG1. The method can be used if measurements of spectral quantities and luminance of the source or luminaire L s are available.

In the case of non-uniform luminance distribution of luminance must be measured and the highest value of luminance at mm and field of vision 0.

Using the formula for blue light hazard efficacy for visible radiation, we calculate K B,v and blue light radiance using the formula. Determination of threshold illuminance E thr and threshold distance d thr is presented in Section 5. The method is very similar to the method discussed in 4.

After spectral radiance at the distance of mm and field of vision of 0. Assessment of blue light hazard for sources with maximum angular size 11 mrad using a spectroradiometer begins with measurements of spectral radiance at measurement distance of mm and field of vision 11 mrad. If the spectroradiometer used to make the measurements is calibrated in values of spectral irradiance, the values must be converted using the following formula:.

On the basis of values L e l we calculate the value of blue light radiance L B using the formula:. First source luminance must be calculated, using the formula:. Substituting these values to formula we get.

The values of threshold distance d thr can be obtained by one of the following methods:. Measurement setup to determine threshold distance d thr of sources with directional point distribution. In the first case, for point sources, the measurement setup has a very simple configuration, shown in Fig.

Changes in the assessment of blue light hazard introduced by Technical Report TR also apply to standards on light sources and luminaires. IEC [5] is a notable example here — it contains general requirements and assessments of luminaires but also refers to problems connected with blue light hazard cf. The use of light sources in hazard groups higher than RG2 with respect to blue light is not expected.

This would require satisfaction of tough requirements on the use of this type of light sources. Presently, the types of light sources which should be considered with respect to blue light hazard include only LED lamps, metal-halogen lamps and some types of special halogen lamps. More information on instrumentation by GL Optic for blue light hazard assessment can be found here.

Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Post Comment. Begin typing your search term above and press enter to search. Press ESC to cancel. Skip to content Blue light hazard — new recommendations on the assessment of LED lamps and luminaires. Home Publications How to About Contact. Home June 26 Blue light hazard — new recommendations on the assessment of LED lamps and luminaires.

Instruments , Photobiology , Publications , Standards. Miko June 26, August 4, Introduction T he EN standard is one of the most important documents discussing photobiological hazards. Assessment of the hazard caused by LED lamps and luminaires LED lamps and luminaires used for general lighting purposes and in industrial applications emit mainly optical radiation in the visible range.

Assessment of photobiological safety of blue light emitting sources and luminaires presented in EN [1] and extensively described by Pietrzykowski [2] covers lamps and luminaires: with continuous or pulse light, large and small, as per the classification given in the standard, intended for general lighting purposes and industrial applications, with uniform or non-uniform spatial distribution of radiation intensity.

Table 1. E B or L B to the corresponding radiation quantity: or an equivalent relation: where: E e — irradiance, L e — radiance. Presently the following assessment methods of blue light hazard are used: assessment based on measurements of photometric and colorimetric quantities, assessment based on measurements of spectral quantities and luminance assessment based only on measurements of spectral quantities and relevant calculations 4.

The luminaire should be marked and carry an instruction with standard requirements. Part 1: General requirements and tests. Previous Article Understand the causes, consequences, and measurement of light flicker. Next Article Light for colour evaluation in printing and graphic arts industries. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Publications , Science , Technology March 26, October 24, Search for: Begin typing your search term above and press enter to search.

Back To Top. Nominal T cp [K]. Conservative values of E thr [lx]. Nominal correlated colour temperature [K]. Nominal values of correlated color temperature and luminance given by the manufacturer can be used as the basis for the assessment.

Light & Engineering 27 (5)

Back to overview. State-of-the-art photobiological safety testing facility will help Korea-based manufacturers target global markets safely and speedily. The new facility will help Korea-based manufacturers of LED products and lighting systems to target local and international markets, including the European Union, safely and speedily. It is authorized to test products and issue ENEC certifications — an essential qualification for any lighting equipment vendor interested in entering any EU market. The new lab is equipped to measure the color temperature and luminance of blue light in wavelengths between and nm and determine what risk group the LED product falls into. For example, Group 0 is for products that pose no risk, Group 1 for low risk and Group 2 for medium risk.


Retinal blue light hazard exposure limit. P. To protect against retinal photochemical injury from chronic blue-light exposure, the integrated spectral radiance of.


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DRM is included at the request of the publisher, as it helps them protect their copyright by restricting file sharing. Visit FileOpen to see the full list. CIE The required radiometric measurements are quite involved, for they do not deal with the simple optics of a point source, but rather with an extended source that may or may not be altered by diffusers or projection optics. Also the wavelength distribution of the lamp may be altered by ancillary optical elements, diffusers, lenses, and the like, as well as variations in operating conditions.

Alexander V. Karev, Ph. Dmitry S.

Photobiological safety of LED-based lighting systems – theory and practical hazard assessment

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Skip to Main Content. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Based on high concern on the Photobiological safety of LED lighting products from the current customers and marketing, the current situation of blue light hazard from the LED lighting products combination with the certification projects conducted in China and the standard and testing basis of the photobiological safety in China, the suggestion on gradually building the voluntary certification project for the important indicators, including blue light hazard and so on, of the photobiological safety field is provided to guarantee the photobiological safety performance by means of certification.

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This is why many newly built or modernized industrial facilities are equipped with lighting systems based on LED technology. The quality of LED luminaires is particularly important because of the higher environmental requirements their operation is subject to in industrial facilities, as well as their expected level of reliability. Lighting of work places. Natural and artificial optical radiation sources can pose a serious photobiological threat to human eyes and skin. Ultraviolet radiation ranks among the most active and dangerous causes of this type of threat. However, visible light and infrared radiation may also be hazardous when certain exposure limits are exceeded. Assessing the level of photobiological threat that can come from optical radiation emitted from luminaires is

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Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology pp Cite as. Photobiology is a scientific field that involves biology, physics and chemistry in order to study the effects of optical radiations on living organisms. Lighting systems are sources of artificial optical radiations used primarily to provide light to the human eye in order to enable visual processes in the absence of enough daylight. The first photobiological effect of a visible light source is vision itself. Photobiological safety refers to the undesirable effects of optical radiations on human tissues, especially the skin and the eye.

T he EN standard is one of the most important documents discussing photobiological hazards. The standard defines principles which should be followed to assess photobiological hazards and safety of artificial and natural sources of optical radiation. It covers all kinds of sources emitting optical radiation in a very wide range of wavelength — in ultraviolet, visible spectrum and far infrared. Presence near the emitting source, depending on its type, can lead to injuries and even to serious illnesses. Persons exposed to ultraviolet, visible or infrared radiation, can have the biological tissues of their eyes and skin damaged. Conjunctivitis, keratitis and erythema are frequent consequences of ultraviolet radiation.

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  1. Tearlach M. 08.04.2021 at 16:41

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