Growth And Development Of Tourism In India Pdf

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In the global economy, tourism is one of the most noticeable and growing sectors. An increase in tourism flow can bring positive economic outcomes to the nations, especially in gross domestic product GDP and employment opportunities. The period under study was from to To check whether the variables under study were stationary, augmented Dickey—Fuller and Phillips—Perron unit root tests were applied.

The Contribution of Sustainable Tourism to Economic Growth and Employment in Pakistan

In the global economy, tourism is one of the most noticeable and growing sectors. An increase in tourism flow can bring positive economic outcomes to the nations, especially in gross domestic product GDP and employment opportunities.

The period under study was from to To check whether the variables under study were stationary, augmented Dickey—Fuller and Phillips—Perron unit root tests were applied. A regression technique and Johansen cointegration approach were employed for the analysis of data.

This study suggests that legislators should focus on the policies with special emphasis on the promotion of tourism due to its great potential throughout the country.

Policy implications of this recent study and future research suggestions are also mentioned. The tourism industry has emerged as a key force for sustainable socioeconomic development globally [ 1 , 2 ]. The idea behind sustainable tourism is to visit the locations without harming the local community and nature and also having some constructive impact on the environment, society, as well as the economy of the country [ 3 ]. Tourism can include transportation to the general place, local transportation, accommodations, leisure, entertainment, shopping, and nourishment.

Currently, there is a widespread consensus that tourism growth should be sustainable, although the question of how to achieve this is a subject of debate [ 6 ]. Tourism and the travel sector are important economic activities all over the world [ 7 ]. In many countries, the tourism industry remains an important source for the generation of employment and income in formal and informal sectors [ 8 ]. For instance, Hwang and Lee [ 9 ] claimed that economic growth and development is rapidly increasing in Korea due to the increase in elderly tourism.

This increase shows that tourists feel inner satisfaction, which positively affects their future behavioral intentions [ 10 ]. Similarly, developing countries can engender a huge amount of foreign exchange from tourism that could also boost their sustainable growth and development [ 11 ]. Tourism revenue complements the exchange derived from the overseas trade of goods and services. International tourism has become increasingly important in several nations around the globe [ 14 ].

In most of the countries, the revenue from tourism is considered as a substitute for export earnings and contributes a lot to their balance of payment [ 15 ]. There are a lot of examples where tourism has a very positive impact on the economy of any country [ 16 ]. In the globalization era, third world nations started tourism to advance their economy, promote peace, develop human resources, and reduce the poverty level [ 17 ].

In terms of employment, the local community could expand their earnings and socio-economic condition, which could lead to an improved standard of living. Tourism improves local community development and helps to reduce poverty [ 19 ].

South Asia is recognized as a distinctive region with a substantial contiguous landmass, and diverse physical features from grasslands to forests, and swamplands to deserts. It has a large variety of natural resources, coastal areas, mountains, scenic beauty, and rivers, and assorted climatic conditions, which makes this region even more attractive [ 20 ]. In these countries, the economic base is still weak despite such great potential for tourism. The tourism industry is also a tool of economic development in South Asia like other developing countries.

It will be 9. In , tourism contributed 7. By the year , the share of tourism in the job market is expected to touch 7. Source: World travel and tourism council, In the South Asia region, Pakistan is well known for its tourism. Pakistan is a very beautiful country, and the tourism industry is growing [ 21 ]. Pakistan offers much allure in the developing world.

The cultural and historical inheritance is very evident in this ancient region. In the Northern Area of Pakistan, there are a lot of places that are comprised of majesty and grandeur. These areas have relics of distinct lands exclusive to its heritage and it is hallowed as a top destination with an astonishing collection of many attractive rivers, mountains, lakes, and valleys [ 23 ]. The Karakoram, Hindukush, Himalaya, and Pamir mountain ranges create formidable areas in the northern regions.

They bring trekkers, climbers, hikers, and mountaineers. They also contain numerous unheeded rocks and flowing streams that bring hundreds of thousands of tourists every year. Only a few regions in the world can present a high-class combination of magnificent natural attraction, a rich variety of socio—economic systems, and history as offered by Himalayan and Hindukush regions of Pakistan [ 20 ]. International tourism in Pakistan has achieved record growth. The number of tourists has reached , from all tourist producing market places.

This figure is a According to the report, in , 1. The WTTC expects that amount to rise to In , tourism contributed 6. This total is expected to rise in The success of tourism in Pakistan hopes to contribute to the reduction of its poverty level.

The current study observed how the tourism industry supported the economy and also increased employment in South Asia. In South Asia, there are eight countries, but we have chosen Pakistan only for this study. In other countries, many studies have been conducted by other scholars [ 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 ]. However, in South Asia, less research attention has been paid towards the tourism sector and the growth of the economy. Therefore, the present study examines the relationship of sustainable tourism to economic growth and employment in Pakistan.

The data was available for Pakistan but missing for other Asian countries. This article contains six sections. The first section is the introduction of the study. The second section contains theories and hypotheses development. The third section provided the research methodology of the study. The fourth is the results section. The fifth section comprises the conclusions and discussions.

The final section includes policy implications, limitations, and future research directions. Since the s, the tourism sector has been considered an effective developmental growth pole, and many countries have enhanced their tourism sector to improve their economic development [ 30 ].

Todaro and Smith proposed in their study that it is a multidimensional process as far as development is concerned, and it comprises positive changes not only in economic growth and national institutions but also in poverty reduction.

Modernization theory MT is one of the most popular developmental paradigms to have gained admiration from the late 19th till the midth century. This theory is thought to be an extension of another theory called growth theory, which is grounded in Keynesian economics [ 31 ]. For justification of MT, the theorists used it as a key social indicator for economic development, which trickles down to the grassroots level of society in the form of plentiful economic and employment prospects.

Wealthy and powerful modernized economies usually provide a high-quality of life and modern technology to their citizens. Modernization becomes more favored due to its bold and effectual production methods.

Moreover, from the tourism perspective, the modernization strategies of development not only engender foreign capital but also smooth the way for the transfer of technology and create greater employment opportunities than before. The main focus of tourism development is these economic paybacks, and whenever other economic resources trickle down, the tourism multiplier acted as a growth-pole [ 26 ]. Dependency theory DT became popular in the s and s.

It is a composite of numerous interrelated theories and mainly focuses on the inequalities of core capitalist and southern developing countries [ 32 ]. According to this theory, historically poor countries are kept deprived of development by developed and rich countries.

The economic reliance of developing countries on development projects is based on: 1 transfer of advanced technology from industrialized countries; 2 creation of massive debts and dependency on foreign investment; and 3 interest on debts transmitted back to the developed countries [ 33 ].

In response to the huge criticism of this theory in the s and s, neoliberalism theory NL was formed. NL is a theory of free global markets without any economic and political influence. The dogma behind this theory is to remove all barriers constructed by developed countries. There should be a free flow of capital and trade globally and slight consideration should be given to the market traits like privatization, market development, de-regularization, self-determination, and self-sufficiency [ 34 ].

In the above-mentioned era, it was widespread that governments had the capabilities to earn foreign capital. As far as neoliberal tourism is concerned, hotel chains could play a primary role to magnetize foreign capital. By developing infrastructure in tourist attraction areas, the local and national economies could get a boost, although the decrease in state participation in social welfare programs and limiting trade unions, the spending on education, health, environment, and other welfare also decreased.

In Neoliberal, tourism not only pauses the development of the state but also humiliates and exploits the labor to set off its own self-interest. Eventually, in the decades of the s and s, it was realized that rather than benefiting the poorest of the world, policies were tilted, i. To enrich and uplift the standard of living of the poorest, aid and development organizations started searching for causes of poverty [ 35 ].

Instead of getting rid of the root causes of poverty, the new alternative development AD or bottom-up style was launched only to minimize the symptoms. A basic needs approach BNA only concentrated on basic needs and did not focus on economic development. According to neoliberal development and general modernization theories, the standard of living is measured by economic growth.

However, DT and AD theories of economic development interrogated this approach. The DT approach demonstrated the negative effects of Western development on the poorest communities of the south and AD theory swung development to bottom-up from the top-down approach. Sustainable development SD is the combination of two different objectives of sustainability and development.

In simple words, this theory is a mixture of development and sustainability theories [ 36 ]. Until the end of the 20th century, ecologists were concentrating on the ideas of the conservation movement of the 19th century [ 37 ].

Tourists with environmental knowledge loathe ecological and social damage. The sustainability factor has been appropriated irrespective of the fact that the tour operating companies were motivated by promoting ecological vacations.

Ioannides [ 38 ] was of the opinion that the International Federation of Tour Operators IFTO used sustainability as a marketing tool with the intention to maximize profit. Currently, efforts are being made for a reduction in poverty through pro-poor tourism. Researchers have a variety of views concerning how tourism contributes to economic expansion and employment in many developed and underdeveloped countries. A number of scholars have the same opinion on the significant role of tourism and how it relates to the growth of the economy.

Impact of tourism in Indian economy

Tourism and the Economy in General The most important economic feature of activities related to the tourism sector is that they contribute to three high-priority goals of developing countries: the generation of income, employment, and foreign-exchange earnings. In this respect, the tourism sector can play an important role as a driving force of economic development. The impact this industry can have in the different stages of economic development depends on the specific characteristics of each country. Given the complexity of tourism consumption, its economic impact is felt widely in other production sectors, contributing in each case toward achieving the aims of accelerated development. A major difficulty in defining the boundaries of the tourism sector is to ascertain what investment costs should be ascribed to the development of tourism. Because of its interdependence with other sectors of the economy, it is difficult to analyze and plan for tourism.

Tourism in India

Tourism in India is important for the country's economy and is growing rapidly. Over Worldwide, Delhi is ranked 28 th by the number of foreign tourist arrivals, while Mumbai is ranked 30 th , Chennai 43 rd , Agra 45 th , Jaipur 52 nd and Kolkata 90 th.

Factors responsible for development of tourism in India

There are various definitions of tourism. Theobald suggested that etymologically, the word "tour" is derived from the Latin 'tornare' and the Greek 'tornos,' meaning 'a lathe or circle; the movement around a central point or axis.

The Contribution of Sustainable Tourism to Economic Growth and Employment in Pakistan

In the last few years, India has gained exceptional growth in the tourism industry. It owns the status of one of the most preferred destinations for overseas and domestic travelers today. Ever wondered what could possibly be the factors responsible for the development of tourism in India in recent years? This is mainly what this article attempts to elucidate all about. Apart from being a great source of revenue, this industry also aims to provide the tourists with an opportunity to understand and experience the cultural diversity of the country through tourism.

This paper coins how tourism sector is significant for Indian economy. Developing country like India tourism has become one of the major sectors of the economy, contributing to a large proportion to GDP and employment opportunities. Tourism is one of the fastest growing service industry in the country with great potentials for its further expansion and diversification. It helps significantly to the country for creating the employment opportunities to the large number of people. Moreover, it is also one of the important engines to attract more foreign exchanges with its potential. We need to concentrate to have liberal policies, relaxation in taxes, comprehensive package and so on to influence tourist and foreign investment. India has rich source in tourism for the establishment of the brand.

Tourism in India

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Ты в опасности. Казалось, она его не слышала. Хейл понимал, что говорит полную ерунду, потому что Стратмор никогда не причинит ей вреда, и она это отлично знает. Хейл вгляделся в темноту, выискивая глазами место, где прятался Стратмор. Шеф внезапно замолчал и растворился во тьме. Это пугало Хейла.

Я хотел бы с ней покувыркаться. Ролдан сразу решил, что это подстава. Если он скажет да, его подвергнут большому штрафу, да к тому же заставят предоставить одну из лучших сопровождающих полицейскому комиссару на весь уик-энд за здорово живешь.


  1. Eleanor H. 10.04.2021 at 13:53

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