Jewish Family Names And Their Origins An Etymological Dictionary Pdf

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In addition, all sources are shown with a summary of the data that can be found on these websites. In Indonesia, for example, the last name is not necessarily a family surname: A child can be given the surname other than that of its parent.

Jewish surnames are family names used by Jews and of Jewish origin. Jewish surnames are thought to be of comparatively recent origin; [1] the first known Jewish family names date to the Middle Ages , in the 10th and 11th centuries CE. Jews have some of the largest varieties of surnames among any ethnic group, owing to the geographically diverse Jewish diaspora , as well as cultural assimilation and fairly recent Hebraization of surnames.

Jewish surname

Jewish surnames are family names used by Jews and of Jewish origin. Jewish surnames are thought to be of comparatively recent origin; [1] the first known Jewish family names date to the Middle Ages , in the 10th and 11th centuries CE. Jews have some of the largest varieties of surnames among any ethnic group, owing to the geographically diverse Jewish diaspora , as well as cultural assimilation and fairly recent Hebraization of surnames.

Some traditional surnames relate to Jewish history or roles within the religion, such as Cohen "priest" , Levi , Shulman "synagogue-man" , Sofer "scribe" , or Kantor " cantor " , while many others relate to a secular occupation or place names. The majority of Jewish surnames used today developed in the past three hundred years. Historically, Jews used Hebrew patronymic names. In the Jewish patronymic system the first name is followed by either ben- or bat- "son of" and "daughter of," respectively , and then the father's name.

Bar- , "son of" in Aramaic , is also seen. Permanent family surnames exist today but only gained popularity among Sephardic Jews in Iberia and elsewhere as early as the 10th or 11th century and did not spread widely to the Ashkenazic Jews of Germany or Eastern Europe until the 18th and 19th century, where the adoption of German surnames was imposed in exchange for Jewish emancipation.

European nations gradually undertook legal endeavors with the aim of enforcing permanent surnames amongst Jewish populations. Part of the Alhambra Decree of contained a provision mandating fixed legal surnames for Sephardic Jews, but it wasn't until the 17th and 18th centuries that the rest of Europe followed suit, the Kingdom of Prussia began sequentially requiring Jews in its eastern provinces to adopt surnames in the s, an edict affirmed by Napoleon following his invasion of Prussia in , the Holy Roman Empire meanwhile issued a decree mandating legal Jewish surnames in Surnames were derived from a variety of sources, such as the personal names of ancestors, place names, and occupations.

In the 18th century, a custom developed amongst the Eastern European Jews of the Austro-Hungarian and Russian Empires where surnames began being passed from mother to son as opposed from father to son, however the trend seems to have died out by the early 20th century.

An exception was members of the Cohanim priestly caste and Levites descendants of Levi who performed certain religious duties, who had always appended the surnames Cohen and Levi respectively modern spelling in English may vary , which were usually preceded by ha- meaning "the" in Hebrew. These names are seen in many various forms today, all coming from this root. Although Ashkenazi Jews now use European or modern-Hebrew surnames for everyday life, the Hebrew patronymic form is still used in Jewish religious and cultural life.

It is used in synagogue and in documents in Jewish law such as the ketubah marriage contract. Surnames were not unknown among the Jews of the Middle Ages, and as Jews began to mingle more with their fellow citizens, the practice of using or adopting civic surnames in addition to the "sacred" name, used only in religious connections, grew commensurately. Among the Sephardim this practice was common long before the exile from Spain , and probably became still more common as a result of the example of the conversos , who upon adopting Christianity accepted in most cases the family names of their godfathers.

Among the Ashkenazim , whose isolation from the mainstream majority population in the lands where they lived was more complete, the use of surnames only started in most places to become common in the eighteenth century. The use of surnames became common very early among the Arabic-speaking Jews, who carried the custom into the Iberian Peninsula modern Spain and Portugal.

Hagen corresponds to Hassan or Hazan ; and the like. Arias is patronymic surname spread throughout the peninsula. Frequent among the Jews of Spain and Portugal, for whom it had the hidden meaning of "the lion of Israel is on high".

In the converts in Ciudad Real were numerous. A well-known personage was the humanist and Hebraist Benito Arias Montano , a profound connoisseur of Jewish culture, who was saved from the Inquisition by his friendship with Felipe II, accused of being a Judaizer.

The name Sasportas deserves special attention, as it is really the Balearic dialectal form of La Porta. The "Asturias" family name was also said to be adopted by Sephardic Jews who had migrated to the northern province of Spain, which is also called Asturias. This is the case with Alonso Calle, treasurer on the first voyage of Christopher Columbus to the Americas, who was one of the settlers of Sephardic origin who comprised the crew. The Curiel family is part of these New Christian families that emerge around the time due to persecution.

Jews have historically used Hebrew patronymic names. While permanent family surnames started appearing among Sephardic Jews in Iberia and elsewhere as early as the 10th or 11th century, they did not spread widely to the Ashkenazic Jews of Germany or Eastern Europe until later. Surnames derived from the name of the matriarch of the family were adopted by some households.

The Slavic language-influenced counterpart is Rivkin. Other surnames came from the man's trade such as Metzger butcher or Becker baker , and a few derived from personal attributes, such as Jaffe beautiful , or special events in the family history. The majority of Middle Age surname adoption came from place names for example Shapiro , from Shpira, Speyer , a Rhenanian city known for its famous Jewish community in the 11th century , often a town name, typically the birthplace of the founder of a rabbinical or other dynasty.

These names would permutate to various forms as families moved, such as the original Welsch becoming Wallach, Wlock, or Block. Since these surnames did not have the official status that modern ones do, often the old surname would be dropped and a new one adopted after the family moved their household.

Many surnames in the Netherlands derived from the German versions. The process of assigning permanent surnames to Jewish families most of which are still used to this day began in Austria. In , when Napoleon had occupied much of Prussia, surname adoption was mandated for the unoccupied parts; and Jews in the rest of Prussia adopted surnames in Napoleon also, in a decree of July 20, , insisted upon the Jews adopting fixed names.

The city of Hamburg was the last German state to complete the process, in At the end of the 18th century after the Partition of Poland and later after the Congress of Vienna the Russian Empire acquired a large number of Jews who did not use surnames.

They, too, were required to adopt surnames during the 19th century. In medieval France the use of Biblical names appears to have been more extended, judging by the elaborate lists at the end of Gross's Gallia Judaica. True surnames occurred, especially in the south, like Farissol, Bonet, Barron, Lafitte; but as a rule local designations were popular, such as "Samson of Sens", etc. Many immigrants to modern Israel change their names to Hebrew names, to erase remnants of exiled life still surviving in family names from other languages.

This phenomenon is especially common among Ashkenazic Jewish immigrants to Israel, because most of their surnames were taken recently, and many were imposed by authorities in Europe as a replacement for the traditional Hebrew patronymic form. A popular form to create a new family name using Jewish patronymics sometimes related to poetic Zionist themes, such as ben Ami "son of my people" , or ben Artzi "son of my country" , and sometimes related to the Israeli landscape, such as bar Ilan "son of the trees".

Others have created Hebrew names based on phonetic similarity with their original family name: Golda Meyersohn became Golda Meir. Most of the Jews in Iran had no permanent surnames before Reza Shah. After surnames became mandatory, many Persian Jews employed job related names as their surnames. Many Jews worked in non-Muslim professions like goldsmith, silversmith, dealers of coins, money changing and seller of spirits.

Others engaged in medicine, silk manufacturing and weaving, locksmith, tailors, shoe makers, merchants of second hand items. Many Jews adopted these professions as their surnames, such as Abrishami silk maker , Almasi diamond maker , Boloorian crystal maker , Dehghan wealthy farmer , Fallah farmer , Zarrinkoob, Javaherian, Gohari gold seller , Noghrehforosh silversmith , Mesforosh coppersmith , Sarraf, Sarrafan, Sarraf Nezhad, Banki money changer , Zargar, Zarshenas goldsmith , Hakakian or Hakkakian connected with raw material, finished product or implements associated with that trade for example Roya Hakakian.

Jews in Iran also employed the son of or daughter of patronymics, using Persian suffixes such as -pour son of , -zadeh born of , -nezhad from the race of and -ian from the group of.

Some examples of these names include Davoud pour son of David , Davoud nezhad from the seed of David , Davoud zadeh born of David , Rabbi pour son of a rabbi , Rabbi zadeh born of a rabbi , Yaghoub pour son of Jacob and Jafar nezhad from the race of Japhet. Many Persian last names consisted of three parts in order to distinguish from other families with similar last names. Some Persian Jewish families that had similar surnames to their Muslim neighbors added a second surname at the end of their last names.

Many Jews employed the Turkish suffix -chi meaning "merchant of" to denote their profession. Examples of such include Abrishamchi silk merchant , Saatchi watch seller , Talachi gold seller , Noghrechi silver seller , Arakchi merchant of alcoholic drinks , Meschi copper merchant , Aeenechi merchant of mirrors , etc. Many modern Jewish surnames are toponyms , names derived from place names. There are general names like Deutsch , Frank , Franco , Frankel , and more localized ones from almost every European country.

Germany has contributed the largest number. David Cassel , Treves whence, according to some authorities, originated the very popular Alsatian name of Dreyfus , Dresden , Fulda hence Foulde , and Oppenheim ; others, to less familiar towns, like Auerbach , Bischoffsheim , Utting am Ammersee hence Utting , Hildesheim Hildesheimer , Landshuth , Sulzberg.

The English Crawcour cf. Siegfried Kracauer comes from Cracow , while van Praag h is the name of a Prague family that settled in the Netherlands before going over to England. The name Gordon may in some cases be derived from the Russian Grodno [ citation needed ] but is also said to have been adopted by Jews in the Russian Empire in honor of Lord George Gordon — , a Scottish nobleman who converted to Judaism in in Birmingham. Another frequent source for Jewish and German-Jewish surnames is the names of trades and occupations; such names as Kaufmann and Marchant "merchant" became prominent.

Related, and likewise generically German, names are derived metonymically for a common object or tool of a profession: e. There are other occupational names that are more distinctively related to Jewish culture and religious roles: Parnass, Gabbay, Singer, Cantor , Voorsanger , Chazan , Cantarini , from the synagogue officials who were so called; Shochet , Schaechter , Schechter , from the ritual slaughterer also Schub or Shub: Hebrew acronym for shochet u-bodek , ritual slaughterer and kosher meat inspector ; Shadkun , a marriage-broker; Rabe , Rabinowitz , Rabinovich , Rabinowicz , and Rabbinovitz , rabbis occasionally Anglicized to Robinson or Robbins ; Benmohel one variant of which is Mahler , son of one who performed circumcision , the sacred rite of Abraham.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Family name commonly used by Jewish people. This article includes a list of general references , but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Hebraization of surnames. See also: Hebrew surname. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Until , the father's name would often be the family name; for example, Aaron ben son of Samuel was known as Aaron Samuel. At the beginning, surnames were not relevant. They were only used for outstanding individuals, not for families.

Such family names were set up for educated people, scholars, poets and other notable citizens. Only in special cases they became true family names. In fact the existence of a family name gives a family group its credits, therefore outstanding families tried to demonstrate their prominence, because of a long-established family name. However, Jews in Central and Eastern Europe survived until the 13th century with no significant family names, except again for outstanding individuals.

In Russia this development was slow and took effect from to with the integrated part of Poland. At the end of the 19th century all Jews had their surnames. It is impossible to know where the first family names whether Jewish or not came from. As has been seen, surnames were not unknown among the Jews of the Middle Ages, and as Jews began to mingle more with their fellow citizens the practise of using or adopting civic surnames in addition to the "sacred" name, used only in religious connections, grew commensurately.

Of course, among the Sephardim, this practise was common almost from the time of the exile from Spain, and probably became still more common as a result of the example of the Maranos, who on adopting Christianity accepted in most cases the family names of their godfathers.

Among the Ashkenazim, whose isolation from their fellow citizens was more complete, the use of surnames became at all general only in the eighteenth century. Retrieved Kaganoff

Jewish Family Names and Their Origins: An Etymological Dictionary

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Jewish Family Names and Their Origins: An Etymological. Dictionary. NY, Ktav Publishing House, , pp. Genealogy Institute CS G Jones, George.


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1 Comments

  1. CaitГЎn P. 05.04.2021 at 05:37

    Jewish family names are 'chronicles written in code,' as one historian put it, and reflect the history of the Jewish people, from the world of the Biblical patriarchs.