Introduction To Electronics And Communication By K Gopakumar Pdf
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In this industrial drive system, in this course, we will be mostly concentrating on the electric drive part.
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The objective of EEIC Volume 3 is to provide a major interdisciplinary forum for the presentation of new approaches from Electrical Power Systems and Computers, to foster integration of the latest developments in scientific research. All the papers were reviewed by 2 program committee members and selected by the volume editor Prof.
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In this industrial drive system, in this course, we will be mostly concentrating on the electric drive part. So, we will be talking about the electric drive part. A basic definition of an electric drive system can be an electric drive is defined as a form of machine equipment designed to convert electric energy into mechanical energy and provide electrical control of this process. So let us say, let us write that one, electric drive. Refer Slide Time: An electric drive is defined electric drive is defined as a form of as a form of machine equipment machine equipment designed to convert electric energy designed to convert electric energy into mechanical energy, energy into mechanical energy.
So, in an electric drive, what we are doing? We are trying to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy and provide electrical control of this process or electronic control of this process.
That means when we convert electrical energy into mechanical energy; so the load, the output system required in a particular fashion. So, we require a process, a necessary control of the system.
So, all the controls nowadays we do it with electronics control. So, we will say, to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy and provide electrical control of this 1. You are converting electrical energy into mechanical energy with a necessary control. So, this is the basic definition of an electric drive system. Now, this definition, I have taken from a very famous Russian book by Prof. Chilyken and I feel that is a very good definition of an electric drive system.
Now, based on this definition, let us form a blocks schematic so that we can clearly understand what is the conversion process? What are the blocks inwards? And, where the control is? For control, what are the inputs required? So, basic block diagram let us write about. Now, the basic block diagram for an electric drive system may look like this; so, we are converting electrical energy in the mechanical energy.
So, we should have the source, what we call the power source. Power source, we will put it like this; this is the power source, this is the power source. Refer Slide Time: Now, this power source, our basic power sources are our mains; the voltages and currents will be in AC.
Sometimes, the power source can be a battery where the voltage and current are DC; sometimes we can have solar power. So power source, the output of the power source should go to a power convertor. This power convertor, the output of the power convertor brings the power source to the required level; the voltage level, current level, frequency level last required by the load. So, we require a power convertor where the power source can be controlled and modified or changed AC to DC, whatever it is; so, power convertor.
We will come to each block soon. So, power convertor. We are converting electrical energy to mechanical energy; the source and the power convertor convert to the desired level and for any mechanical energy, we should require a 2. In electrical drive system, a motor is a part of and motor will be connected to the load.
This is the basic open load block schematic of an electric drive; we have the power source, power convertor will convert to the required level and give to the motor, motor will give the required speed and power to the load.
So, in our electric drive system, what we are controlling? Conversion of the electrical energy to mechanical energy means the source is electrical and the load is mechanical.
So, we are converting into electrical energy mechanical energy that means basically speed and the torque. Now, in our basic definition, we should give the necessary control of this process. So, let us draw the block diagram like this, controlled. Controller - that is our electronics controller; now controller output will control what? We do not have any control of the power source, power source is what is available to us given to us and load is suggested by the customer, what he wants.
So, once we select the motor, then all the control; motor parameters we cannot change, we have to control the whole thing through our power convertor. So, controller output will mainly go to the power convertor. So, to take the necessary control action, controller requires some inputs. So, as many as inputs are always good for a good controller but the more input means more devices, more sensing equipments are required.
Then the system will become very costly. So, the controller input depends on a cost effective design, we will limit to what is their minimum required. So, controller input can be from power source. Why from power source? Suppose, if for AC, our mains, we are using as the power source; sometimes the voltage can fluctuate, frequency can fluctuate, then the power convertor should control it such that the motor gets the required steady voltage and current irrespective of the fluctuation in the power source.
So, there is an input from the power source is required. We can also have input from the motor; speed can be one input, motor voltages and current can be one input.
Suppose, due to some sudden change in load, motor drives very large current which is beyond its requirement; suddenly controller can, we can control that one through our power convertor. Power convertor, through power convertor we can control the motor input parameters such that the current can be controlled or sometimes the load require more torque, it is rotating.
So, motor should drive more current. So, this can be controlled through our power convertor. So, the basic inputs, we can have power source and from the motor load and the power convertor. This is the basic block diagram of an electric drive system. Now, in our course, we will be mostly studying the power convertor side and the controller.
We can only control and we can select and choose these two and motor is selected for decided base from the load requirement. Once these are selected, these are fixed that means power source, motor and the load. Then any control parameter, we can only control through these power convertor and the controller. This is only in our control.
Let us take the power source. Power source can be, we can basically, we can we can specify as DC and AC. So, we will go to the next page. Refer Slide Time: Depending on the power source available; either battery or mains, power source can be basically define as basic form DC or AC.
Now, our output of the convertor also we can very basic with the basic form of output, we can say either DC or in AC. So, here also there is a power convertor; DC or AC. Now, we should have conversion, the power convertor convert the power source, a DC voltage of one level should convert to a voltage level to a different voltage level as required by the motor. So, there is a DC to DC conversion. This has to be achieved through our power convertor. The basic power convertor of this one, we can call as the rectifier.
But if you see in electrical, as an electronic engineer or electrical engineer; you know how to rectify? If you have the diode, a three phases or single phase rectification is possible.
But we will not be this is not the required rectifier what we want. We require control of the process. So, what we require here into is a controlled rectification, like using thyristors, phase control convertors; so one example.
So, it is controlled rectifier, this is controlled rectifier that is AC to DC. Then the next conversion; this is power source, this is on the load side or the motor side, DC to AC that means a DC source battery or a rectifier output that means what is available to us 4.
One example is UPS that is basically invertors. These types of convertors are called, power convertors are called invertors, these are called invertors. We will be studying in the due course, the basic control of the invertors, various invertors topologies for speed control applications, we will be concentrating more on that one later.
Then another one AC to AC. That means voltage, current or frequency of one into another voltage and current and frequency of different level. These are basically in old books; we can see one class of convertors is called cycloconvertors, one example.
But we will not be studying about this one now. Now, after going through the classification and block, we set our control of the whole processing through the controller. That means we have to design the controller such that the system will quickly adapt to the change without much translates. So, controller design is very important. Nowadays, simulation tools are available, so we can have a mathematical study and we can simulate and we can tool the controller before a hardware implementation is started.
That will say lot of time and money; otherwise we have to learn from the failures. The hardware if keep on failure fail and leave be if we learn from that process, the cost of the whole system will go up. So, the controller design and the controller tuning, before I control the implementation; a controller design and tuning can be done through a simulation study. For a simulation study, the whole system should be modeled. That means equivalent mathematical representation of the system is required.
That means the representation for the power source, power source basically we can AC or DC, we can do it; then the power converter, then the motor. So, a mathematical model of the motor required based on, for our controller design. As I told you before, the whole process is converting electrical energy into mechanical energy, mechanical energy through our; what is the output of the load?
The mechanical energy, the torque and the speed, from there we are generating the energy.
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Farsana, K. With the advancement in modern computational technologies like cloud computing, there has been tremendous growth in the field of data processing and encryption technologies. In this contest there is an increasing demand for successful storage of the data in the encrypted domain to avoid the possibility of data breach in shared networks. In this paper, a novel approach for speech encryption algorithm based on quantum chaotic system is designed. In the proposed method, classical bits of the speech samples are initially encoded in nonorthogonal quantum state by the secret polarizing angle. In the quantum domain, encoded speech samples are subjected to bit-flip operation according to the Controlled—NOT gate followed by Hadamard transform.
Donald A. NY ; Electronic Devices and Circuits PDF p This book is intended as a text for a first course in electronics for electrical engineering or physics students, has two primary objectives: to present a clear, consistent picture of the internal physical behavior of many electronic devices, and to teach the reader how to analyze and design electronic circuits using these devices. Much attention has been given to enhance the pedagogical part of the book. The use of computer tools is presented carefully, alongside the important hand analysis and calculations. The text is suitable for the first course on Electronic Devices and Circuits for the electrical and electronic engineering students.
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Lecture- Syllogistic Poem. Syllabus ; Co- ordinated by. Flux- canceling electrodynamic magl ev suspension. This introduction to electronics and communication by k gopakumar pdf textbook has been created by lecturers from the University of Malawi - introduction to electronics and communication by k gopakumar pdf Bunda College of Agriculture.
Updated: Dec 8, Small-signal Parameter Measurements and Test Circuits.