Philosophy And Love From Plato To Popular Culture Pdf

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Philosophy and Love introduces historical and contemporary philosophical reflections on love. It brings together philosophy with cultural analysis to provide an accessible and engaging account of conventional theories of love as well as theMorePhilosophy and Love introduces historical and contemporary philosophical reflections on love. It brings together philosophy with cultural analysis to provide an accessible and engaging account of conventional theories of love as well as the controversial reformulations evident in same-sex desire, cross-cultural love andinternet romance. Starting with Plato, but focusing especially on contemporary European philosophy, this book introduces figures such as Nietzsche, Beauvoir, Irigaray, Derrida and Fanon. Explaining these philosophical approaches in clear and accessible terms, Philosophy and Love also engages with cultural productions - ranging from Sappho to Frankenstein, and from Hiroshima Mon Amour to Desperate Housewives - enabling an exchange between philosophical and cultural theories.

Philosophy and Love: From Plato to Popular Culture

Plato was a philosopher during the 5th century BCE. He was a student of Socrates and later taught Aristotle. He founded the Academy , an academic program which many consider to be the first Western university.

Plato wrote many philosophical texts—at least He dedicated his life to learning and teaching and is hailed as one of the founders of Western philosophy. He is also famous for his dialogues early, middle, and late , which showcase his metaphysical theory of forms—something else he is well known for. Plato also founded the Academy , an academic program that many consider to be the first Western university, where he stressed the importance of science and mathematics.

Plato is one of history's most influential philosophers. His contributions range across numerous philosophical subfields, including but not limited to ethics , cosmology , and metaphysics. Though he was not a scientist in the modern sense, Plato also examined the natural world and the philosophical implications it held. He lived primarily in Athens , Greece. Plato did not have children, and it is assumed based on textual evidence that he never married.

He did have a number of siblings, however: three brothers, Glaucon, Antiphon, and Adeimantus of Collytus, and one sister, Potone. His father, Ariston of Athens, died when he was young, and his mother, Perictione, remarried with her uncle Pyrilampes. Building on the demonstration by Socrates that those regarded as experts in ethical matters did not have the understanding necessary for a good human life, Plato introduced the idea that their mistakes were due to their not engaging properly with a class of entities he called forms , chief examples of which were Justice , Beauty, and Equality.

Whereas other thinkers—and Plato himself in certain passages—used the term without any precise technical force, Plato in the course of his career came to devote specialized attention to these entities. As he conceived them, they were accessible not to the senses but to the mind alone, and they were the most important constituents of reality, underlying the existence of the sensible world and giving it what intelligibility it has.

In metaphysics Plato envisioned a systematic, rational treatment of the forms and their interrelations, starting with the most fundamental among them the Good , or the One ; in ethics and moral psychology he developed the view that the good life requires not just a certain kind of knowledge as Socrates had suggested but also habituation to healthy emotional responses and therefore harmony between the three parts of the soul according to Plato, reason , spirit, and appetite.

His works also contain discussions in aesthetics , political philosophy , theology , cosmology , epistemology , and the philosophy of language. His school fostered research not just in philosophy narrowly conceived but in a wide range of endeavours that today would be called mathematical or scientific. The son of Ariston his father and Perictione his mother , Plato was born in the year after the death of the great Athenian statesman Pericles. Plato as a young man was a member of the circle around Socrates.

Since the latter wrote nothing, what is known of his characteristic activity of engaging his fellow citizens and the occasional itinerant celebrity in conversation derives wholly from the writings of others, most notably Plato himself. Resentment against Socrates grew, leading ultimately to his trial and execution on charges of impiety and corrupting the youth in Plato was profoundly affected by both the life and the death of Socrates.

After the death of Socrates, Plato may have traveled extensively in Greece , Italy , and Egypt , though on such particulars the evidence is uncertain. The followers of Pythagoras c. It is thought that his three trips to Syracuse in Sicily many of the Letters concern these, though their authenticity is controversial led to a deep personal attachment to Dion — bce , brother-in-law of Dionysius the Elder — bce , the tyrant of Syracuse.

The great mathematicians Theaetetus — bce and Eudoxus of Cnidus c. Although Plato was not a research mathematician, he was aware of the results of those who were, and he made use of them in his own work. For 20 years Aristotle was also a member of the Academy. Because Aristotle often discusses issues by contrasting his views with those of his teacher, it is easy to be impressed by the ways in which they diverge.

Thus, whereas for Plato the crown of ethics is the good in general, or Goodness itself the Good , for Aristotle it is the good for human beings; and whereas for Plato the genus to which a thing belongs possesses a greater reality than the thing itself, for Aristotle the opposite is true.

Indeed, the painting may be said to represent this continuity by showing the two men conversing amicably. In any case, the Academy did not impose a dogmatic orthodoxy and in fact seems to have fostered a spirit of independent inquiry; at a later time it took on a skeptical orientation. Although Plato is well known for his negative remarks about much great literature , in the Symposium he depicts literature and philosophy as the offspring of lovers, who gain a more lasting posterity than do parents of mortal children.

His own literary and philosophical gifts ensure that something of Plato will live on for as long as readers engage with his works. But the ordering of Thrasyllus makes no sense for a reader today. By combining the two kinds of consideration, scholars have arrived at a widely used rough grouping of works, labeled with the traditional designations of early, middle, and late dialogues. These groups can also be thought of as the Socratic works based on the activities of the historical Socrates , the literary masterpieces, and the technical studies see below Works individually described.

The copying process inevitably resulted in some corruption, which is often shown by disagreement between rival manuscript traditions.

These features represent the contributions of scholars of many generations and countries, as does the ongoing attempt to correct for corruption. Important variant readings and suggestions are commonly printed at the bottom of each page of text, forming the apparatus criticus.

In the great majority of cases only one decision is possible, but there are instances—some of crucial importance—where several courses can be adopted and where the resulting readings have widely differing import. The work of the translator imports another layer of similar judgments. Some Greek sentences admit of several fundamentally different grammatical construals with widely differing senses, and many ancient Greek words have no neat English equivalents.

A notable artifact of the work of translators and scholars is a device of selective capitalization sometimes employed in English. Others have employed a variant of this convention in which capitalization is used to indicate a special way in which Plato is supposed to have thought of the forms during a certain period i. Still others do not use capital letters for any such purpose.

Readers will do best to keep in mind that such devices are in any case only suggestions. In recent centuries there have been some changes in the purpose and style of English translations of ancient philosophy. The great Plato translation by Benjamin Jowett —93 , for example, was not intended as a tool of scholarship; anyone who would undertake such a study already knew ancient Greek.

At the other extreme was a type of translation that aimed to be useful to serious students and professional philosophers who did not know Greek; its goal was to indicate as clearly as possible the philosophical potentialities of the text, however much readability suffered in consequence.

Exemplars of this style, which was much in vogue in the second half of the 20th century, are the series published by the Clarendon Press and also, in a different tradition, the translations undertaken by followers of Leo Strauss — Except in a few cases, however, the gains envisioned by this notion of fidelity proved to be elusive.

This is particularly true of the short, Socratic dialogues. In the case of works that are large-scale literary masterpieces, such as the Phaedrus , a translation of course cannot match the artistry of the original. Finally, because translators of difficult technical studies such as the Parmenides and the Sophist must make basic interpretive decisions in order to render any English at all, reading their work is very far from reading Plato.

In the case of these dialogues, familiarity with commentaries and other secondary literature and a knowledge of ancient Greek are highly desirable. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.

Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Constance C.

Author of Plato's Parmenides and others. See Article History. Top Questions. Western philosophy. Read more below: Dating, editing, translation. Read more below: Life. Peloponnesian War. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Phaedo by Plato; portion of manuscript, 3rd century bce.

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Philosophy And Love From Plato To Popular Culture

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‘Of comfort and dispaire’: Plato’s Philosophy of Love and Shakespeare’s Sonnets

This book introduces historical and contemporary philosophical reflections on love. It brings together philosophy with cultural analysis to provide an account of conventional theories of love as well as the controversial reformulations evident in same-sex desire, cross-cultural love and internet romance. Starting with Plato, but focusing especially on contemporary European philosophy, the book introduces figures such as Nietzsche, Beauvoir, Irigaray, Derrida and Fanon.

Robert Arp born March 20, is an American philosopher known for his work in ethics , modern philosophy , ontology , philosophy of biology , cognitive science , evolutionary psychology , religious studies , and philosophy and popular culture. He currently works as an adjunct professor teaching philosophy courses in the classroom and online at numerous schools in the Kansas City, Missouri area and other areas of the United States. Louis, Missouri area as an adjunct professor of philosophy — , before doing postdoctoral research in ontology through the National Center for Biomedical Ontology with Mark Musen and Barry Smith at the University at Buffalo — Arp's paper in International Philosophical Quarterly titled "Vindicating Kant's Morality" offers a defense of Immanuel Kant 's position against those who would claim that Kant's moral position lacks a motivational component, ignores the spiritual dimensions of morality espoused by a virtue-based ethics , overemphasizes the principle of autonomy in neglecting the communal context of morality, and lacks a theological foundation. In "The Double Life of Justice and Injustice in Thrasymachus' Account," published in Polis: The Journal for Ancient Greek Political Thought , , , Arp argues that Thrasymachus , the primary interlocutor of Socrates in Book I of Plato 's Republic , actually defines three types of people in a society: the tyrant, the citizens of the society that the tyrant exploits, and the person who wants to be the tyrant and who's clever enough not to be exploited by the tyrant.

Philosophy And Love: From Plato To Popular Culture Linnell Secomb

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