Tribes Of Andaman And Nicobar Islands Pdf
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Andaman and Nicobar Islands , union territory, India , consisting of two groups of islands at the southeastern edge of the Bay of Bengal. The peaks of a submerged mountain range, the Andaman Islands and their neighbours to the south, the Nicobar Islands , form an arc stretching southward for some miles 1, km between Myanmar Burma and the island of Sumatra , Indonesia. The arc constitutes the boundary between the Bay of Bengal to the west and the Andaman Sea to the east.
- Ethnobotanical studies of the tribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. I. Onge
- The Tribes of Andaman
- Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Ethnobotanical studies of the tribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. I. Onge
Cholera is one of the few bacterial diseases capable of pandemic spread. Seven distinct pandemics of cholera have been recorded since The sixth and probably the fifth were caused by the classic V. The pandemic potential of cholera is exemplified by the rapid spread of it in Latin America once reintroduced there in after a century of absence. The seventh cholera pandemic spread from Sulawesi to other Indonesian islands and by the end of it had spread to the entire Southeast Asian archipelago.
In , V. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is frequently isolated from seawater and seafood samples in the islands. In October—November , an outbreak of severe watery diarrhea appeared on three islands in the Nancowry group of islands, which are part of the Nicobar District of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in India. The outbreak spread to many villages on these three islands and affected a large number of tribal people.
In this report, we present the epidemiologic features of this first recorded outbreak of cholera in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are an archipelago of islands, islets, reefs, and rocks in the Bay of Bengal.
The total population, as per the census, is approximately , The largest tribal group is the Nicobarese, who inhabit the islands in the Nicobar District. Except for Great Nicobar, all the other islands in the Nicobar District are inhabited almost exclusively by Nicobarese. The Nancowry group, lying in between Car Nicobar in the north and Great Nicobar in south, comprises several small islands. The main town in the Nancowry group of islands is Kamorta, which is in the Kamorta Islands.
The community health center CHC at Kamorta, the primary health center on Katchal Island, and several sub-centers provide primary health care to the tribal population.
A person reporting with watery diarrhea on or after October 5, was considered a suspected case of cholera. Patient records kept at the CHC in Kamorta were used as source of information about patients. A list of residents of the Nancowry Islands maintained by the Andaman and Nicobar Administration was used as the source of information about the population at risk.
Patients admitted to the CHC after the beginning of the investigations and their relatives were interviewed. A house-to-house survey was conducted in one village, where the outbreak was continuing. Information about illness and water sources were collected from the residents of the village.
Stool sample were collected from all the patients admitted to the CHC in Kamorta after the beginning of the investigations. When whole stool samples could not be obtained, rectal swabs were collected. Samples were collected from different water sources in the villages visited. Samples of seawater near the shore were also collected. Isolated bacteria were serotyped using commercially available antisera.
All drinking water sources in all villages in Kamorta, Nancowry, and the Trinket Islands were super-chlorinated. Public awareness campaigns were initiated based at sub-centers located in various villages.
The sub-center staffs were instructed to refer all cases of diarrhea to the Kamorta CHC. Intravenous fluids, oral rehydration solution, and essential drugs were stocked in the sub-centers. Pharmacists and auxiliary nurse midwives at the sub-centers were instructed to start early rehydration in all cases of diarrheal diseases. They were also instructed to provide intravenous fluids while referring cases to the CHC. The first case and death occurred on October 5, Investigations were initiated in first week of November.
Until October , the usual number of cases of severe watery diarrhea reporting to the Kamorta CHC was approximately 10 per month. In October , this increased to more than , which is clearly in excess of the number of cases expected. The outbreak started at Tapong village on Nancowry Island on October 5, The index case was an year-old woman.
During the next few days, several persons in Tapong village were affected. By this time, awareness about early hospitalization was spread among the people and patients were reporting early. Thus, there were no additional fatalities in Tapong village.
Eight cases occurred during the period October 5—7. After a lull of three days, an additional four cases occurred on October 11 and This probably indicates secondary cases. Figure 1 shows the dates of onset of outbreak in different villages in the three islands Nancowry, Kamorta, and Trinket The outbreak started at Tapong on October 5. Within the next few days, it spread to the villages on the northern part of Nancowry Island and then to Kamorta and other villages on the southern edge of Kamorta Island.
The outbreak then spread northward on both the eastern and western costs of Kamorta Island. During this spread, villages in Trinket Island lying east of Kamorta were also affected.
There were a few exceptions to the general pattern of spread. For example, Bunder Khadi village, which lies further north than the villages of Ramzo, Payuha, Munak, and Changuwa, was affected earlier. Apparently Kamorta was affected soon after the outbreak appeared in Tapong on October 5.
All patients from Tapong were treated at Kamorta and it is possible that these patients were the source of infection in Kamorta. None of the villages south of Tapong, where the outbreak started, was affected. The distribution of cases that occurred on Nancowry, Kamorta, and Trinket islands by date of reporting is shown in Figure 2.
It shows multiple peaks indicating the occurrence of secondary cases. The overall trend showed an increase in the number of cases reaching a peak by first week of November and then a decrease.
The epidemic curve shown in Figure 2 is a combination of multiple epidemic curves in different villages on the three islands. Each of these epidemic curves showed multiple peaks. Figure 3 shows the distribution of the cases in some of the villages.
In some villages, the outbreak reappeared after being absent for many days. In Tapong, the initial outbreak ended on October 12, but reappeared on November 2 after a gap of 20 days. In Dering village, the outbreak started on October 14 and continued up to October After a lull of five days, it started again on November 3. Four cases occurred between November 3 and 5.
Another case occurred on November 8. After a lull of four days, another six cases occurred on November 13 and There are 45 inhabited villages on the three islands and 16 of them were affected. As per the residents list maintained by the Andaman and Nicobar Administration, there were 3, persons residing on the three islands. Attack rates ranged between 0. All age groups were affected. The attack rate was highest among infants and those 20—24 years old. Figure 4 shows the age-specific attack rates.
The attack rate was There were three deaths in the hospital. An additional three persons, including the index cases, died in their homes. Thus, the case fatality ratio CFR was 1. All deaths occurred among adults. Isolates of V. Age group samples processed, isolates. Water samples from 53 drinking water sources were tested for contamination with Escherichia coli and 38 Vibrio cholerae was not isolated from any of the water samples. An investigation regarding use of different water sources as the source of infection was conducted in Dering village.
This village has 17 households located on the beach. There are 11 wells out of which seven are used for drinking water purposes. The remaining four wells are used exclusively for washing and bathing. Each well is used by certain families. There are seven groups of households with different well usage patterns. The first case occurred on October 20 in household no.
The patient had traveled to another village where the outbreak was ongoing. During his return journey, he had abdominal discomfort and vomiting. The day he arrived in Dering he had diarrhea. During the next eight days, nine households using different wells were affected. Three other households were affected on November 11, 12, and 17, respectively.
Attack rates among these groups and households are shown in Table 3. Households in all the groups were affected. The attack rates among the groups of households ranged from Attack rates in individual households ranged from
The Tribes of Andaman
Cholera is one of the few bacterial diseases capable of pandemic spread. Seven distinct pandemics of cholera have been recorded since The sixth and probably the fifth were caused by the classic V. The pandemic potential of cholera is exemplified by the rapid spread of it in Latin America once reintroduced there in after a century of absence. The seventh cholera pandemic spread from Sulawesi to other Indonesian islands and by the end of it had spread to the entire Southeast Asian archipelago. In , V.
It is safe to say that the original population of the Andaman and Nicobar islands consist of aboriginal indigenous people, i. They have been dwelling in the forests and jungles of the islands for centuries, lead a hunter-gatherer lifestyle, and appear to have lived in substantial isolation for thousands of years. The Andamanese and Nicobarese can be split into two broad tribal groups mainly based on their place of origin. All are nomadic hunter-gatherers, hunting wild pig and monitor lizard, and catching fish with bows and arrows. They also collect honey, roots and berries from the forest.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Rao and A. Sugunan and M. Murhekar and S. Rao , A.
Census operation in the remote and far-flung Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands had been a tough but fascinating exercise down the corridor.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Click here for Paper I G. For queries, reach us on prestorming shankarias. Why in news? What are the measures taken by government in this regard?
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands Protection of Aboriginal Tribes Act of  prohibits travel to the island and any approach closer than five nautical miles 9. The area is patrolled by the Indian Navy. Nominally, the island belongs to the South Andaman administrative district , part of the Indian union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.