World War 1 And 2 Summary Pdf
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World War I (WW1) Worksheets & Facts
The outbreak of war was greeted in Australia, as in many other places, with great enthusiasm. This began a campaign that ended with an evacuation of allied troops beginning in December Throughout and losses on the Western Front were heavy and gains were small.
In the Australians reached the peak of their fighting performance in the battle of Hamel on 4 July. From 8 August they then took part in a series of decisive advances until they were relieved in early October. Germany surrendered on 11 November. The Middle East campaign began in with Australian troops taking part in the defence of the Suez Canal and the allied re-conquest of the Sinai Desert.
In the following year Australian and other allied troops advanced into Palestine and captured Gaza and Jerusalem; by they had occupied Lebanon and Syria and on 30 October Turkey sued for peace. For Australia, the First World War remains the costliest conflict in terms of deaths and casualties. From a population of fewer than five million, , men enlisted, of whom more than 60, were killed and , wounded, gassed, or taken prisoner.
An Australian digger uses a periscope in a trench captured during the attack on Lone Pine, Gallipoli, 8 August When Britain declared war against Germany in August , Australia, as a dominion of the British Empire, was automatically also at war.
While thousands rushed to volunteer, most of the men accepted into the Australian Imperial Force in August were sent first to Egypt, not Europe, to meet the threat which a new belligerent, the Ottoman Empire, posed to British interests in the Middle East and the Suez Canal. After four and a half months of training near Cairo, the Australians departed by ship for the Gallipoli peninsula, along with troops from New Zealand, Britain, and France.
On 25 April the Australians landed at what became known as Anzac Cove, whereupon they established a tenuous foothold on the steep slopes above the beach. During the early days of the campaign the allies tried to break through Turkish lines, while the Turks tried to drive the allied troops off the peninsula.
Attempts on both sides ended in failure and the ensuing stalemate continued for the remainder of In fact, the most successful operation of the campaign was the large-scale evacuation of troops on 19 and 20 December. As a result of a carefully planned deception operation, the Turks were unable to inflict more than a very few casualties on the withdrawing forces.
After Gallipoli the AIF was reorganised and expanded from two to five infantry divisions, all of which were progressively transferred to France, beginning in March The light horse regiments that had served as additional infantry during the Gallipoli campaign remained in the Middle East. By the time the other AIF divisions arrived in France, the war on the Western Front had long been in a stalemate, with the opposing armies facing each other from trench systems that extended across Belgium and north-east France, all the way from the English Channel to the Swiss border.
The development of machine-guns and artillery favoured defensive over offensive operations, and this compounded the impasse that lasted until the final months of the war.
Troops of 53rd Battalion wait to don equipment for the attack at Fromelles, 19 July Only three of these men survived. While the fighting continued throughout and , the Australians and other allied armies repeatedly attacked the German trenches, preceded by massive artillery bombardments intended to cut barbed wire and destroy defences.
The surviving Germans, protected by deep and heavily reinforced bunkers, were usually able to repel the attackers with machine-gun fire and artillery support from the rear. These attacks often resulted in limited territorial gains followed, in turn, by German counter-attacks.
Although this style of warfare favoured the defensive armies, both sides sustained heavy losses. In July Australian troops were introduced to this type of combat at Fromelles, where they suffered 5, casualties in 24 hours. By the end of the year about 40, Australians had been killed or wounded on the Western Front. In a further 76, Australians became casualties in battles such Bullecourt, Messines, and the four-month campaign around Ypres known as the battle of Passchendaele. Australian wounded infantrymen at the first battle of Passchendaele, near Zonnebeke railway station.
In March the German army launched a massive Spring Offensive, hoping for a decisive victory before the industrial strength of the United States could be fully mobilised in support of the allies.
The Germans initially met with great success, advancing 64 kilometres past the Somme battlefields of , but eventually lost momentum. Between April and November the stalemate of the preceding years began to give way.
When the German offensive failed, the allied armies began their own counter-offensive combining infantry, artillery, tanks, and aircraft to great effect, demonstrated in the Australian capture of Hamel on 4 July In early October, after the fighting at Montbrehain, the Australian divisions withdrew from the front for rest and refitting; they were preparing to return to the fighting when Germany signed the Armistice on 11 November.
The Australians in the Middle East fought a mobile war against the Ottoman Empire in conditions completely different from the mud and stagnation of the Western Front.
Mounted troops of the Australian Light Horse and the Imperial Camel Corps endured extreme heat, harsh terrain, and water shortages, yet casualties were comparatively light, with 1, Australians killed or wounded in three years of fighting. The desert campaign began in when Australian troops took part in the defence of the Suez Canal and the allied action to take back the Sinai Desert.
In the following year Australian troops participated in a British push into Palestine that captured Gaza and Jerusalem; by they had occupied Lebanon and Syria and were riding into Damascus. On 30 October Turkey sued for peace. Australians also served at sea and in the air. The Great War was the first armed conflict in which aircraft were used; some 3, Australian airmen served with the Australian Flying Corps in the Middle East and France, mainly in observation capacities or providing air support for the infantry.
Australian women volunteered for service in auxiliary roles: as cooks, nurses, drivers, interpreters, munitions workers, and farm workers. While the government welcomed the service of nurses into the armed forces, it generally rejected offers from women in other professions to serve overseas. Australian nurses served in Egypt, France, Greece, and India, often in trying conditions or close to the front, where they were exposed to shelling and aerial bombardment as well as outbreaks of disease.
The effects of the war were also felt at home. Families and communities grieved for the loss of so many men, and women increasingly assumed the physical and financial burden of caring for families. Anti-German feeling also emerged with the outbreak of the war, and many Germans living in Australia were sent to internment camps. Censorship and surveillance, regarded by many as an excuse to silence political views that had no effect on the outcome of war, increased as the conflict continued.
Social division also grew, reaching a climax in the bitterly contested and unsuccessful conscription referendums of and When the war ended, thousands of ex—servicemen and servicewomen, many disabled with physical or emotional wounds, had to be re-integrated into a society keen to consign the war to the past and resume normal life.
Peter Dennis et al. Last updated: 28 August Cultural Message Modal. First World War — Accession Number: A Australian troops in the Lone Pine trenches. History When Britain declared war against Germany in August , Australia, as a dominion of the British Empire, was automatically also at war. Accession Number: E Accession Number: B Accession Number: EN Accession Number: P Sources and further reading: C.
World War I
It lasted six years, from The War became a global conflict after the German military, led by Adolf Hitler , invaded Poland in because he wanted to take some of their land for Germany. Life during the Second World War was very difficult. Today, we mark special days to remember the many millions of people who fought and died during World War II. Hitler had already invaded Austria and Czechoslovakia, so the war began over his plan to take more land for Germany. For days — from 8 September to 27 January — the city of Leningrad in Russia was surrounded by German troops.
Ottoman Empire in World War I
The Ottoman Empire entered the war by carrying out a surprise attack on Russia's Black Sea coast on 29 October , with Russia responding by declaring war on 5 November The Ottoman Empire's defeat in the war in was crucial in the eventual dissolution of the empire in Ottoman entry into World War I was the result of two recently purchased ships of its navy, still manned by their German crews and commanded by their German admiral, carrying out the Black Sea Raid on 29 October There were a number of factors that conspired to influence the Ottoman government, and encourage them into entering the war.
This seemingly small conflict between two countries spread rapidly: soon, Germany, Russia, Great Britain, and France were all drawn into the war, largely because they were involved in treaties that obligated them to defend certain other nations. Western and eastern fronts quickly opened along the borders of Germany and Austria-Hungary.
World War II
The outbreak of war was greeted in Australia, as in many other places, with great enthusiasm. This began a campaign that ended with an evacuation of allied troops beginning in December Throughout and losses on the Western Front were heavy and gains were small. In the Australians reached the peak of their fighting performance in the battle of Hamel on 4 July. From 8 August they then took part in a series of decisive advances until they were relieved in early October. Germany surrendered on 11 November.
World War II , also called Second World War , conflict that involved virtually every part of the world during the years — The war was in many respects a continuation, after an uneasy year hiatus , of the disputes left unsettled by World War I. The 40,,—50,, deaths incurred in World War II make it the bloodiest conflict, as well as the largest war, in history. Great Britain and France responded by declaring war on Germany on September 3. The war between the U.
Axis initiative and Allied reaction
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